The first americans

14,239 views

Published on

0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
14,239
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3,609
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
283
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The first americans

  1. 1. Unit 1 The First Americans Geography and Climate Change the World By: Mr. Casey
  2. 2. How did they get here? • Scientists believe Native Americans came from Asia to what is now North America between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago. Two Ways Native Americans Came: 1. Land Bridges (Bering Strait) 2.Watercrafts along the coast
  3. 3. The land Bridge (Bering Strait)
  4. 4. Migration Across North America
  5. 5. Why did they come? • FOOD “I’m Hungry!” • Many nomads followed their food American Mastodon Big-horned bison
  6. 6. Agriculture Changes A Way of Life • American Indians began to grow food. They still hunted and gathered but were able to stay in one place by growing crops. Three Main Crops: “Three Sisters” 1. Squash 2. Beans 3. Corn *Usually Men hunted and fished, women gathered and farmed
  7. 7. Cultural Regions There are four cultural regions 1. Pacific Northwest 2. Desert Southwest 3. Great Plains 4.Eastern Woodlands *Each region had to adapt to meet their survival needs
  8. 8. Native american Cultural regions
  9. 9. Cultural Characteristics • Geography • Climate • Shelter • Tools • Food • Clothing • Government
  10. 10. Northwest Region
  11. 11. Climate and Geography • Take 10 minutes and discuss: “How did climate and geography effect...” 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Clothing 4. Agriculture 5. Hunting 6. Tools 7. Government
  12. 12. NOrhtwest Region Geography - Land stretching up the Pacific Coast from northwest California to southern Alaska Climate - Long winters, heavy precipitation Shelter - Multifamily houses made of wooden planks Tools - Wood Carving tools to build and shape canoes and household containers, dishes, and spoons made of animal horns Food - Fish, especially salmon; whales, seals, roots and berries Clothing - Thick clothing made from animal skins and fur
  13. 13. The Showoffs • The tribes of the northwest region were rich in comparison to most other native american tribes. • All the people in the tribe were not equal - your status was based on wealth, property and prestige
  14. 14. The Showoffs Totem Poles
  15. 15. Lifestyle Potlatches Long Wooden Homes
  16. 16. Desert Southwest
  17. 17. Climate and Geography • Take 10 minutes and discuss: “How did climate and geography effect...” 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Clothing 4. Agriculture 5. Hunting 6. Tools 7. Government
  18. 18. Southwest Region Geography - Between the rocky mountains and the Mexican Sierra Madre (present day Arizona) Climate - Desert Shelter - Villages of large stone and adobe dwellings known as pueblos Tools - Looms for making textiles; pottery Food - Corn and beans; game such as deer, antelope, and rabbit Clothing - Breechcloths made of cotton, with deerskin leggings and moccasins, (men) wraparound dresses made of cotton, and deerskin moccasins (women)
  19. 19. The “Pueblo” Indians • The Native Americans of the southwest were called the Pueblo Indians because of the homes they built that looked like apartment complexes • The word “pueblo” means village in Spanish
  20. 20. Pueblo Indians Peaceful Tribes except for the Apache They were great craftsman. They made very ornate baskets, sandals, and belts.
  21. 21. Pueblo indians • Sipapu - The Great Creator Kachinas- supernatural beings that were the Kiva- sacred, ceremonial messengers of the gods; building they brought good fortune
  22. 22. Plains
  23. 23. Climate and Geography • Take 5 minutes and discuss: “How the climate and geography may have effected...” 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Clothing 4. Agriculture 5. Hunting 6. Tools 7. Government
  24. 24. Plains Region Geography - Between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, stretching north into Canada Climate - Temperate with four seasons Shelter - Tepees (Crow); Earth lodges (Cheyenne) Tools - Bows and Arrows, knives Food - Large game such as bison, deer, elk, and antelope; sometimes traded for corn Clothing -Shirts, leggings and moccasins made from deer or bison skin (men); dresses of deerskin and moccasins (women)
  25. 25. Different lives Most tribes were nomadic (Comanche, Sioux, and Blackfoot) and carried their homes with them teepees... these could be broken down and turned into a sledge called a travois
  26. 26. THE HORSE
  27. 27. Different lives Some tribes were not nomadic (Mandans). They grew crops and stayed in one place. They did hunt, but stayed close to their homes and lived in permanent dwellings Most tribes’ lives revolved around the...
  28. 28. Different lives Some bison meat was eaten fresh but some was beaten into a pulp and mixed with berries and fat. This was called pemmican. Bison hide or rawhide would be used for clothing by tanning it
  29. 29. Different lives War Bonnets Eagle Feathers Sun Dance Coup Stick
  30. 30. Eastern woodlands
  31. 31. Climate and Geography • Take 5 minutes and discuss: “How the climate and geography may have effected...” 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Clothing 4. Agriculture 5. Hunting 6. Tools 7. Government
  32. 32. Eastern Woodlands Geography - From Lake Superior to the Atlantic Coast (present-day eastern United States) Climate - Temperate climate with four seasons Shelter - Longhouses made from a tree frame and bark walls; other Eastern Woodlands used wigwams Tools - Stone Blades; wood utensils such as ladles and bowls; pottery Food - Crops such as beans, squash, and most importantly, corn; men fished and hunted deer and birds Clothing -Deerskin clothing, including moccasins, sewn with thread made from deer sinew (shredded fibers of tendon)
  33. 33. Mound Builders (Eastern Ancestors) Built large mound temples- some as large as a 10-story building
  34. 34. Mound Builders (Eastern Ancestors) Both are hunters and farmers Slave society- the rich women marry slaves (“stinkards”) in order to keep the genetic line strong
  35. 35. Three Main Groups Algonquians Iroquois (Fox, Mahican, Ojibwa) (Mohawk and Seneca) Creek Confederacy (Seminoles) Both groups hunt and farm, but the Iroquois are farming experts
  36. 36. Algonquian & Iroquois • They have no written language but they have a complex system of picture writing using tiny shell beads (wampum). They sew the beads onto clothing. It is often used as money.
  37. 37. The Algonquian Villages of small homes called wigwams Several different tribes, but they all speak a similar language and trade with one another
  38. 38. Powwow A large meeting where they settled arguments, had festivals, and formed alliances
  39. 39. The iroquois Call themselves Haudenosaunee (ho-dih-no-SHAW-nee) They believe in peace and brotherhood. They want to bring the Algonquians into their league of Indian nations. The Algonquians dislike the Iroguois and call them the “terrible people”
  40. 40. The iroquois They live in Longhouses of 20 or more families The homes are 150 - 300 feet long
  41. 41. The iroquois Have an unique form of government It is a democratic league of five Indian nations 1. Each tribe has its own laws 2. Matters of war - council of all the tribes makes a decision 3. Sachems (SAY-chums), ten from each nation, sit on the council 4. Heads of family (women) choose the sachem 5. Everyone on the council has to agree in order for an action to take place
  42. 42. Native american Cultural regions
  43. 43. Cultural Regions There are four cultural regions 1. Pacific Northwest 2. Desert Southwest 3. Great Plains 4.Eastern Woodlands *Each region had to adapt to meet their survival needs

×