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Opposing Slavery/ Antebellum period Day 4 Group A
The Question• Analyze the moral arguments and political actions of those opposed to the spread of slavery in the context of: The Missouri Compromise• Mexican War• Compromise of 1850• Kansas-Nebraska Act
Missouri Compromise• The Compromise passed in 1820 to divide the Nation along the 36th parallel• Anti-slavites used the compromise to oppose slavery in new states, so long as the number of slave states was equal to the number of free states
The Missouri Compromise• The Compromise granted the South Missouri as a slave state, but the North won the concession that territories could be abolitionist• Extremists condoned the compromise for “avoiding” the issue of slavery, rather than ending it.
Mexican American War Background• The War was brought on after Mexicans retalliated to Northern agression in the lone star republic of texas, which Santa Anna considered Mexican territory• Manifest Destiny played a large role in starting the war, which served as a “practice” theatre for the Civil War
The Mexican War• Reopened the wound of slavery, which had been ignored for decades. Abolitionists blamed the war on a slavocracy that schemed for slave states• The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war, and was opposed in the Senate by anti-slavites who wanted none of Mexico, and slave owners who wanted all of it
The Mexican War• Anti-Slave opinion culminated into the WILMOT PROVISIO, which demanded all new territories gained be free states.• The provisio actually passed in the senate, but not the House.
Compromise of 1850 Background• Despite delaying the Civil War 10 years, many blame aspects of the compromise toward causing the war• It was vetoed by Taylor several times, but he died. Fillmore passed it when he assumed the presidency• The Compromise drew extremists out of the wood work
Compromise of 1850• Needed to deal with the new territories of California, Utah, and New Mexico• Dictated that California would remain free, and Utah and NM could vote to be slave states- an idea known as POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY• The Bill also gave southerners to hunt down slaves in the North
Compromise of 1850• Abolitionists used the proposed “bloodhound bill” to create the Underground Railroad.• Douglas’ popular sovereignty, though a popular measure at the time, eventually lead to violence…• D.C banned the slave trade within its limits• By delaying the war, the North became better prepared for a fight.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Background• Stephen A. Douglas (popular sovereignty) wanted Kansas/Nebraska to host the National Railroad, in opposition to the Gadsden purchase• The Deal split the Nebraska territory into Kansas and Nebraska, and each state could vote for/against slavery• Since Nebraska was north of the 36 th parallel, the act nullified the compromise of 1820
Kansas-Nebraska Act• The Act was opposed by the Free Soil Party, which demanded all soil be free, so poor farmers could compete with plantations• Eventually, Nebraska would vote to be a free state. However, Kansas’ fate was undecided, causing much conflict
Bleeding Kansas• Abolitionists hoped to influence Kansas by pouring into the state, while southerners streamed in from the South• A mini-war broke out between the factions, with Southerners ruling from a puppet government in Shawnee Mission, and the North fortified in Wichita.• John Brown hatcheted 5 men to death here.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act• In addition to starting a war, anti-slavers used the issue to found a new party, The Republicans, which was a motley crew of free-soilers, know-nothings, Whigs, and other slave foes. Thus, the political parties became sectional, finally dividing the North and South
Review• Anti-slaveites used the Missouri Compromise to create a forced balance of free and slave states• Abolitionists used the gains from the Mexican War to finalize the idea that conquered South lands (Cali) could be free states• Abolitionists promoted the idea of popular sovereignty when deciding the fate of NM and AZ in the compromise of 1850, which also stirred northerners to action with its reviled fugitive slave laws• The Kansas-Nebraska act gave life to the Republican Party, an organized anti-slavery movement in politics. Extremists also battled for freedom in Kansas