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Ssush 4 amer_rev


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Ssush 4 amer_rev

  1. 1. SSUSH 4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution . <ul><li>Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; include the writing of John Locke and Montesquieu, and the role of Thomas Jefferson. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette </li></ul>
  2. 2. Continued… <ul><li>Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis, and the Treaty of Paris, 1783. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ideological ( ideology ) <ul><li>a collection of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>unifying system of beliefs, attitudes, and values expressed in a culture. The body of thought and ideas that guides a society. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diplomatic (diplomacy) <ul><li>negotiation between nations </li></ul><ul><li>skillful handling of a situation </li></ul><ul><li>statesmanship: wisdom in the management of public affairs </li></ul><ul><li>A system of formal, regularized communication that allows states to peacefully conduct their business with each other. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sources of the Declaration of Independence
  6. 6. Thomas Hobbes <ul><li>Social Contract Theory- Men originally formed governments for protection & if government doesn’t fulfill its duties we have the right to overthrow that government. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Writing of John Locke <ul><li>English philosopher 1632-1704 </li></ul><ul><li>All people were born with natural rights (inalienable): Life, Liberty, & Property </li></ul>
  8. 8. Writing of Montesquieu <ul><li>1689-1755 </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks & Balances </li></ul><ul><li>His ideas became the basis for the United States Constitution . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Role of Thomas Jefferson <ul><li>Given credit for the Declaration of Independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate from VA who was chosen to express committee’s desire for freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>He drew on concepts of Locke & Montesquieu. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reactions to the D.O.I. <ul><li>Some Patriots celebrated & destroyed property belonging to the Loyalists . </li></ul><ul><li>Some Loyalists fled. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Army Problems <ul><li>Lack of Important supplies, including food & clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh weather </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of enlistments </li></ul>
  12. 12. Valley Forge
  13. 13. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania <ul><li>Winter Camp </li></ul><ul><li>Campsite of American Continental Army </li></ul><ul><li>Great suffering in snow and ice (Shuylkill River frozen over) </li></ul><ul><li>Washington despaired &quot; that unless some great and capital change suddenly takes place ... this Army must inevitably ... Starve, dissolve, or disperse, in order to obtain subsistence in the best manner they can .&quot; </li></ul>
  14. 14. Crossing the Delaware River
  15. 15. Battle of Trenton <ul><li>1776: Washington and his troops crossed the icy Delaware River for a surprise attack on the night of X-MAS 1776. </li></ul><ul><li>The Continental Army quietly approached Trenton, New Jersey and defeated the Hessians (German Mercenaries) </li></ul>
  16. 16. December 1776
  17. 17. The role of Benjamin Franklin <ul><li>Continental Congress sends Franklin to Paris to work for an alliance. </li></ul><ul><li>France sends money and supplies in secret, but no public support. </li></ul><ul><li>After Saratoga, Franklin signs a Treaty of Alliance with France </li></ul>
  18. 18. Battle of Saratoga (1777) <ul><li>British seek to cut off New England from colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial General Horatio Gates defeats large British force at Saratoga. </li></ul><ul><li>This victory convinces the French that colonials have a chance to win. </li></ul><ul><li>French become allies to the Continental Army. </li></ul>
  19. 19. French Alliance <ul><li>The French signed a treaty of cooperation 1778. </li></ul><ul><li>French retaliation </li></ul><ul><li>against the British </li></ul><ul><li>Aided </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>movement with </li></ul><ul><li>supplies and men. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Marquis de Lafayette <ul><li>Brave, idealistic 20 yr. old French aristocrat. </li></ul><ul><li>Joined Washington and the misery at Valley Forge. </li></ul><ul><li>Led a command in VA for the last years of war. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The role of Lord Cornwallis <ul><li>Ambitious British general who led victories in the South. </li></ul><ul><li>His biggest mistake : Led 7,500 troops onto peninsula between James/York Rivers to camp at YORKTOWN. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Battle of Yorktown (1781) <ul><li>Troops under British General Cornwallis are backed up against water at Yorktown. </li></ul><ul><li>French Navy blockades York River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British cannot re-supply or escape. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French and Colonial troops surround town. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After several small battles, Cornwallis surrenders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The last major battle of the war. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Battle of Yorktown
  24. 24. Treaty of Paris, 1783 <ul><li>John Adams, Ben Franklin, & John Jay demanded that Britain recognize American independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmed U.S. independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Set boundaries of the new nation. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Impact of War <ul><li>Idea of liberty spreads throughout the world, leading to revolutions ever since. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a radical concept in a world that long accepted the idea of human inequality. </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, only white males gain true freedom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, seeds of change are planted for women, and slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians make out terrible, pushed farther west </li></ul></ul>