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Phonetics for field methods
Phonetics for field methods
Phonetics for field methods
Phonetics for field methods
Phonetics for field methods
Phonetics for field methods
Phonetics for field methods
Phonetics for field methods
Phonetics for field methods
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Phonetics for field methods

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Transcript

  • 1. Phonetics for field methods Understanding consonants and introducing the IPA
  • 2. What is a consonant • Something that is not a vowel – Vowels relatively obstruction-free path through the mouth – Consonants are created through creating some kind of mouth shape through which the air must escape. • We can distinguish consonants from each other by examining with reference to three qualities: voicing, manner, place
  • 3. Voicing • Many types of consonants can be contrasted in the quality of their voicing • Voiceless consonants are produced with the vocal folds (often referred to as the vocal cords) are apart • Voiced consonants are produced with the vocal folds held together. This means air must push between them forcing them to vibrate. • You can feel this vibration when saying sounds that you can hold or draw out such as: • /zzzzzzzzzzzz/ now say /sssssssssssss/ • You should notice tha tyour mouth stays roughly in the same shape, but the buzzing switches off for the /s/ sequence
  • 4. Place • The flow of air from lungs to outside the body follows the pathway known as the vocal tract • Along the tract the air passes over, through and below various places which can manipulate the sound qualities. • The different places are represented on the picture:
  • 5. Places in the vocal tract
  • 6. Stops or plosives Non-continuant sounds 3 phases blocking the air at point in the mouth holding the air for ‘a beat’ to build pressure the release (the audible phase) English has a series of stops that you will recognised from this detail of the IPA chart, /p/ and /b/ /t/ and /d/ and /k/ and /g/
  • 7. English stops • They constitute the 3 pairs of stops • Within each pair is a voicing contrast. • The left of the pair is always voiceless • Just because English has both pair partners does not mean all languages have both. Polynesian languages for example only have voiceless stops. • Note that the glottal stop has no voiced counterpart – hence is grey shading.
  • 8. fricatives • Fricatives are similar to stops except for the notion of blockage • Rather than a complete blockage, fricatives produce a narrowing of the vocal tract • Create a noisy frication-y sound • This sounds can be held onto continuously • Can be voiced or voiceless
  • 9. Nasals • Air released through the nasal cavity • Like stops, there is a complete blockage somewhere in the vocal tract - the oral portion • Like fricatives in that there is continuous flow through the nasal cavity • Usually voiced but some languages have voiceless nasals

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