Part #3


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Part #3

  1. 1. Example of Phenomenological Inquiry <ul><ul><li>An interpretative phenomenological analysis of delusions in people with Parkinson's disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Todd, D., Simpson, J., & Murray, C. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: to explore what delusional experiences mean for people with Parkinson’s Disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method: Eight participants were interviewed; interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to identify themes within their accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four themes emerged: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. “I got very frightened” – the emotional experience associated with the delusions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. “Why the hells that happening” – sense of uncertainty and of losing control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. “I feel like I’m disintegrating” – loss of identity and sense of self </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. “I’ve just tried to make the best of things” – acceptance and adjustment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Concerns, Criticisms, Limitations <ul><li>Not appropriate when one is trying to establish the pervasiveness of an attitude or behaviour, or to compare situations in order to predict or control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An appropriate question - “What IS X,” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not appropriate – “What CAUSES X” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires that the researcher becomes a phenomenologist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The research must explore his/her own consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The researcher needs to be deeply empathic </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Concerns, Criticisms, Limitations <ul><li>Not an excuse for sloppy research; there is some confusion out there about what constitutes phenomenological research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No clear recipe for doing research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some sense it is not a methodology at all but a perspective on what constitutes knowledge in the human sciences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this it demands the research to be flexible and to self-check. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Solipsism – “ all one can know is oneself” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher is the central point of study (Bentz & Shaprio, 102). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Strengths, Advantages & Inspiration <ul><li>No single, so-called correct way of doing research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not explain but creates understanding among the observed and the observer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted to the needs of the individual study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes public and manageable lived experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More accepting and receptive of its subject matter; careful not to impose order on its subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Openly accepts people’s point of view </li></ul>
  5. 5. Strengths, Advantages & Inspiration <ul><li>Specifically designed for psychology; developed across basically all disciplinary areas, such as learning, perception, language, cognition, personality and social life. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspires insight in the researcher as well as the consumers of the research </li></ul><ul><li>The sample size is usually small, allowing detailed accounts from each participant </li></ul>
  6. 6. Individual Reflections <ul><li>In order to reflect on Phenomenology we have included the links to our blogs for this week: </li></ul><ul><li>Kendra: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Christine: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Erica: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  7. 7. Discussion Questions <ul><li>There are some people who argue that empathy cannot be learned and is an innate quality. Do you agree or disagree and if so, how does a researcher know if he/she has “enough” empathy to embark in phenomenological inquiry? </li></ul><ul><li>If all we can know is oneself (solipsism) what do you think the benefits are of researching subjective experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>What are potential limitations of openly accepting participant’s point of view? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Phenomenology emphasizes description rather then interpretation of the participants experience. Do you think that a description is sufficient to capture the experience or do you think that interpretation is necessary for understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the two opposing views on phenomenological research. How can one theory have two opposite views? Why do you think this is? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think one’s lifeworld would influence one’s relationships with others? How might a lifeworld promote or hinder positive relationship formation? Do you believe that we all have different lifeworlds? </li></ul>
  9. 9. References <ul><li>Todd, D., Simpson, J., & Murray, C. (2010). An interpretative phenomenological analysis of delusions in people with Parkinson's disease. Disability & Rehabilitation , 32 (15), 1291-1299. doi:10.3109/09638280903514705. </li></ul><ul><li>Wertz, F. (2005). Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology , 52 (2), 167-177. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.52.2.167. </li></ul><ul><li>Hein, S., & Austin, W. (2001). Empirical and hermeneutic approaches to phenomenological research in psychology: A comparison. Psychological Methods , 6 (1), 3-17. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.6.1.3. </li></ul><ul><li>Bentz, V. M & Shapiro, J. J. (1998). Mindful inquiry in social research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Giorgi, A. (1997). The theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 28 (2), 235-260. </li></ul><ul><li>Goulding, C. (1998). Consumer research, interpretive paradigms and methodological ambiguities. European Journal of Marketing, 33 (9) , 859-873. </li></ul><ul><li>Laverty, S. M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2 (3) . Article 3. Retrieved July 10, 2010 from </li></ul><ul><li>Wertz, F. J. (1999). Multiple methods in psychology: Epistemological grounding and the possibility of unity. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 19 (2), 131-166. </li></ul><ul><li>Burston, D. & Frie, R. (2006). Psychotherapy as a human science. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Duquesne University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Wimpenny, P. & Gass, J. (2000). Intervirewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(6). Retrieved from EBSCOHost. </li></ul>