World War One Overview

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This was written for my Year 10 VCE History class.

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World War One Overview

  1. 1. World War One The Great War 1914 - 1918
  2. 2. Key facts <ul><li>Went from June 1914 to November 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting was mostly in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Countries from around the world fought. </li></ul><ul><li>20 million people killed. </li></ul><ul><li>21 million people wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the face of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Set the stage for the start of World War Two. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Related films <ul><li>There are a number of films that would increase your understanding of World War One. </li></ul><ul><li>These are fictional stories but can give you a feeling for the times and the events. </li></ul><ul><li>All these titles are available in Australia on DVD. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gallipoli <ul><li>1981 Australian film </li></ul><ul><li>Two young Australian men enlist and fight in the Gallipoli campaign in Turkey during World War One. </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Very Long Engagement <ul><li>2004 French film </li></ul><ul><li>Has English subtitles </li></ul><ul><li>A young woman investigates what happened to her fiancé during the fighting of World War One. </li></ul>
  6. 6. All Quiet On The Western Front <ul><li>1930 American film </li></ul><ul><li>Tells the story of a German soldier during the World War One. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Blackadder Goes Forth <ul><li>1989 British comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Light-hearted look at life in the trenches on the Western Front in World War One. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Question? <ul><li>What is an alliance? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to have one? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pre-War Alliances <ul><li>Countries had alliances to join each other in wars and defend each other against attack. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Austria- Hungary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Entente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Europe Before 1914
  11. 11. Origins of the war <ul><li>There were a number of factors which made war likely at this time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Alliance system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When one country got into a fight it automatically brought many other countries in also. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Arms Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries had large standing armies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These posed a very serious threat. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Origins of the war <ul><ul><li>An Acceptance of War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War was accepted as a legitimate method of getting what your country wanted. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nations were very proud of their armies and military histories. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinary people took a fierce pride in their country. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easily turned into hostility towards other countries. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This idea was reinforced in education, newspapers and literature. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Factors in Germany <ul><li>Germany had been a nation since 1871. </li></ul><ul><li>Had ambitions to have colonies and an empire like France and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Was building up a navy which was a threat to the British Navy. </li></ul><ul><li>The monarch Kaiser Wilhelm III spoke of how he wanted Germany to be a great world power. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Kaiser Wilhelm III: the German Monarch
  15. 15. The Beginning <ul><li>On 28 th June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franz Ferdinand was heir to the Austrian throne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was killed by a Slav nationalist and student called Gavrio Princip. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. This is the Franz Ferdinand who was assassinated.
  17. 17. This is the Franz Ferdinand who are a British band.
  18. 18. Moving to war <ul><li>Austria-Hungary was concerned about Serb and Slav nationalism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Serbs and Slavs broke away the Austro-Hungarian empire might crumble. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Austria threatened to attack Serbia unless they agreed to a range of demands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbia agreed to almost all of these demands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria attacked anyway. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Questions <ul><li>List the four factors which made Europe ready for war in 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>Do each of these apply to Australia today? Explain your answer with examples. </li></ul><ul><li>What event triggered World War One? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Wartime Alliance: The Allies <ul><li>Britain and its empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including Australia and New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France and its empire </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Russia (until 1917) </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Italy (from 1915) </li></ul><ul><li>United States of America (from 1917) </li></ul><ul><li>Minor participants such as Japan. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Wartime Alliance: Central Powers <ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria (from 1915) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Alliances
  23. 23. Activity <ul><li>Colour in the provided map to show each alliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only two colours. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allies one colour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Alliance another colour. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>This German plan assumed it would face two enemies when war broke out. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia in the east. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France in the west. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The plan was to quickly defeat France before Russia could mobilise its army. With France defeated it could concentrate on fighting Russia. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Notice where Germany, Russia and France are.
  26. 26. Things went badly for Germany <ul><li>This plan failed for a number of reasons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia moved their troops more quickly than expected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium refused to allow Germany access and put up fierce resistance to German invasion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The invasion of neutral Belgium enraged Britain who joined the war. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Stalemate <ul><li>Both sides raced to secure the ports on the British Channel. </li></ul><ul><li>When winter started they literally dug in and created trenches stretching from the Switzerland to the English Channel. </li></ul><ul><li>This was the Western Front and its position changed very little for the duration of the war. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Western Front
  29. 29. Western Front Animations <ul><li>http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/maps/maps_western.html </li></ul><ul><li>You can find these links on Red Space Rocket if you want to see them again. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Trench warfare Barbed wire : to make running at the trench difficult. Sandbagged parapet : to stop the trench collapsing. Fire step : to shoot from. Duck Boards : stopped the bottom of the trench getting very muddy and slippery. Parados : to stop ‘shrapnel’ getting into the trench.
  31. 31. Trench warfare
  32. 32. Activity <ul><li>Working in a small group list – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three advantages to using trenches like this. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three disadvantages to using trenches like this. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Attempts to break to stalemate <ul><li>Germany defended the land they had invaded. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies were determined to push back the Germans who were occupying territory the Allies wanted to reclaim. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies used large scale frontal attacks to try to break through the Western Front. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Allied Attacks <ul><li>Used a standard strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artillery bombardment designed to destroy enemy defences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infantry advance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men with rifles would walk toward the enemy in large numbers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cavalry would ride in after and clean out the German trenches. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This strategy was not successful. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Fighting from the trenches
  36. 36. Problems on the Western Front <ul><li>The artillery did not destroy the German defences. </li></ul><ul><li>When the bombardment stopped the Germans emerged and manned their machine guns. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany trenches were difficult to hold once captured and often had to be abandoned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be attacked from three sides. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to get supplies to. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Battle of the Somme <ul><li>The French were doing badly at Verdun. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain agreed to attack near the French town of Somme to draw German resources away from Verdun. </li></ul><ul><li>Started with a week of bombardment. </li></ul><ul><li>280,000 men went over the top at 7.30am on July 1, 1916. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walked toward the enemy with rifles and bayonets. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Battle of the Somme <ul><li>German side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their defences were not destroyed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers came up from their bunkers and used their machine guns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could identify the British officers by their uniform and shot them first. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Battle of the Somme <ul><li>British side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffered 60,000 casualties on the first day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not break though the line. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British command justified the continued assault saying that they were wearing the Germans down. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40.
  41. 41. The Somme <ul><li>YMCA secretary assisting at an advanced dressing station on the Somme, France, during 1918 </li></ul>http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/H01146
  42. 42. Questions? <ul><li>What is a bayonet? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the British do to try to weaken German defences before the push? </li></ul><ul><li>Did this offensive break the German line? </li></ul>
  43. 43. The Eastern Front <ul><li>Russia mobilised quickly and invaded East Prussia. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had some success in Prussia against the Russians. </li></ul><ul><li>Russians had many problems with supplies and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies had problems getting supplies to Russia due to the German North Sea Blockade. </li></ul>
  44. 44. The Eastern Front
  45. 45. The Eastern Front <ul><li>Due to terrible conditions many Russian soldiers deserted. </li></ul><ul><li>By early August 1917 the Russians were in general retreat. </li></ul><ul><li>In November the government was overthrown in the Bolshevik revolution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In December Russia agreed to a truce with Germany. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany could now send extra troops to the Western Front. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. The Middle East <ul><li>Turkey entered the war on the German side in October 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain was determined to knock Turkey out of the war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Gallipoli Campaign was part of this. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Gallipoli failed the British did three things. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Went through Mesopotamia to capture Baghdad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Went from Egypt to Jerusalem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported a revolt by Arabs against Turkish rule. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Australian in the Middle East <ul><li>Port Suez, Egypt. c. 1916. Australian soldiers disembarking from their transport ship. </li></ul>http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/H03202
  48. 48. Troops resting in the desert, Egypt http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/J03311
  49. 49. Gallipoli <ul><li>British, Anzac and French forces landed on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in April 1915. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia and New Zealand Army Corps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Try to capture Constantinople and defeat Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish troops defended their homeland and Allied troops failed to get off the beaches. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied troops finally withdrawn. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Gallipoli: Light Horse Regiment making terraces for dugouts http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/P02798.003
  51. 51. The Balkans <ul><li>The first hostilities started in the Balkans when Austria declared war on Serbia in June 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>In September 1915 Bulgaria joined the Central Powers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies landed troops in Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia occupied by many German, Austrian and Bulgarian forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria finally surrender in September of 1918 and Turkey followed a month later. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A factor in the Germans deciding to seek peace in 1918. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. The Italian Front <ul><li>Italy was a German ally but stayed neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>Renounced the alliance in May 1915 and declared war on Austria-Hungary. </li></ul><ul><li>Had setbacks and victories. </li></ul><ul><li>The battlefront was in stalemate for much of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Signed a truce with Austria in November 1918. </li></ul>
  53. 53. The Air War: Fighter Planes <ul><li>Planes were used for aerial photography and observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilots shot at each other with pistols and rifles sometimes. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1915 the Germans developed the Fokker Eindecker with machineguns on the front. </li></ul><ul><li>As fighter planes developed on both sides planes fought deadly duels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilots became famous including Count Manfred von Richthofen (The Red Baron). </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Count Manfred von Richthofen http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Red_Baron.jpg
  55. 55. Australian Flying Corps http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/P00826.036
  56. 56. Airship At Mooring Mast With Hydrogen Pipe Attached http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/H12056
  57. 57. The Air War: Zeppelins and Bombers <ul><li>Zeppelins and planes used to bomb homelands. </li></ul><ul><li>First British raid over Germany in September 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>First German raid over Britain in December 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>Zeppelins first used by the Germans in January 1915. </li></ul><ul><li>2,000 deaths in Britain from bombing. </li></ul><ul><li>720 deaths in Germany from bombing. </li></ul>
  58. 58. The Sea War <ul><li>There were a number of battles between German and British battle ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Large battle at Jutland in the North Sea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides took a lot of damage and lost many ships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides claimed victory. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After Jutland both sides realised their fleets were too valuable to risk in a large battle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The German fleet remained in port. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British Royal Navy patrolled the North Sea and enforced a blockade of Germany. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the German fleet was ordered back to sea in 1918 many soldiers mutinied. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Albany Harbour in October 1914: Ship with Imperial Reserves on board http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/PS0043
  60. 60. The Blockade and German U Boats <ul><li>Both Britain and Germany depended on imported food. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain blockaded The North Sea and The English Channel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused some protest from the USA. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany used submarines to disrupt supplies into Britain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t lead to big problems in Britain but it did ultimately bring the USA into the war. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. German U Boat: UC 42
  62. 62. German U Boat: UC 42 <ul><li>Commissioned in November 1916. </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out six patrols and sank 13 ships </li></ul><ul><li>one 8.8 cm gun </li></ul><ul><li>18 mines </li></ul><ul><li>7 torpedos. </li></ul><ul><li>The vessel and all hands aboard were lost in an explosion of its own mines off the southern coast of Ireland on 10 September 1917. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Weapons: Rifle <ul><li>Standard weapon for infantrymen. </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate to one kilometre. </li></ul><ul><li>A skilled soldier could shoot 15 shots a minute. </li></ul><ul><li>British soldiers also used bayonets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A long sharp dagger on the end of their rifle. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Infantryman <ul><li>By war artist George Benson </li></ul>http://cas.awm.gov.au/art/ART19990
  65. 65. Weapons: Machine Guns <ul><li>Very good defensive weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the stalemate on the Western Front. </li></ul><ul><li>Produced in massive numbers by both sides. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Weapons: Machine Guns <ul><li>Types included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Maxim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Lewis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Vickers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fired 600 bullets per minute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range of 4 kilometres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took a team of six men to operate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A single machine gun was like 40 or 50 men with rifles. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Machine Gun <ul><li>Portrait of 557 Private George Sydney Mabardi, 15th Machine Gun Company, killed in action 20 April 1918. </li></ul>http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/H05625
  68. 68. German Machine Gun Magazine <ul><li>Held a 100 round cloth belted loaded ammunition belt. </li></ul>http://cas.awm.gov.au/technology/RELAWM07909
  69. 69. Weapons: Tanks <ul><li>Only the British developed tanks in large numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Often broke down or got bogged when first used in 1916. </li></ul><ul><li>Through technical improvements and better tactics became effective and helped break the stalemate in 1918. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Weapons: Tanks
  71. 71. Weapons: Artillery <ul><li>Many types of large cannons used. </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of shells used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High explosive shells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrapnel shells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A 75mm shell held 270 metal balls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maimed and killed over a large area. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Destroyed many but not all defences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunkers could withstand shelling. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsible for 66% of all deaths. </li></ul>
  72. 72. German Artillery Gun <ul><li>A captured German 77mm gun. </li></ul><ul><li>The type of shell used can be seen on the ground. </li></ul>http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/E03519
  73. 73. Weapons: Gas <ul><li>There were 64 types of poison gas used. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mustard Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First used by the French </li></ul><ul><li>Used very effectively by the Germans at Ypres. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually used by all sides. </li></ul><ul><li>By July 1915 all soldiers had gas masks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still an effective weapon of fear. </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. British Gas Mask http://cas.awm.gov.au/heraldry/REL32651
  75. 75. Weapons: Mines <ul><li>Land based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides dug tunnels under no man’s land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed high explosive mines under enemy trenches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploded them just before an attack. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sea mines were also used to make waters unsafe for ships. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Turkish Marine Mine <ul><li>Members of the 2nd Australian Light Horse examine a mine washed ashore on the beach near Marakeb on the coast of Sinai </li></ul>http://cas.awm.gov.au/photograph/J02858
  77. 77. The United States enters the war <ul><li>When the war started the USA declared it was neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>Support for the democracies and also a large German immigrant community in America. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany sank the Lusitania in May 1915 and Americans were among the 1,200 passengers killed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany changed their U Boat tactics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Came to the surface and warned ships before sinking them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changed back to surprise attacks in January 1917. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany sent a telegram to Mexico encouraging them to try an invasion of the USA. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico was not interested. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America finally declared war on Germany in April 1917. </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. The United States enters the war <ul><li>USA made a large loan to Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>In May 1917 President Wilson introduced the draft calling all men from 21 to 31. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By early 1918 there were half a million US soldiers in France. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By July there was one and half million US troops in Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First used in an offensive on July 4 1918. </li></ul><ul><li>The sheer number of men gave the Allies an advantage the Germans could not match. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Propaganda Posters <ul><li>In an age before widespread radio, television or internet Governments used posters to spread important messages to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>These are an excellent resource to understand attitudes and needs at the time. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Propaganda Posters <ul><li>Main types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti the other side. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral boosting </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. England: Recruitment and Conscription
  82. 82. England: War Funding
  83. 83. England: Anti-German
  84. 84. England: Practical
  85. 85. German: War Funding <ul><li>That's how your money helps you to fight! </li></ul>
  86. 86. Germany: Anti-British <ul><li>This is who is guilty </li></ul>
  87. 87. Germany: Morale Boosting <ul><li>England needs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poster explaining how England cannot use the artillery is it making. </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Australia: Recruitment and Conscription
  89. 89. Australia: War Funding
  90. 90. Australia: Anti-German http://cas.awm.gov.au/art/ARTV03277
  91. 91. Activity <ul><li>Make your own propaganda poster. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a poster that might have been used in Australia during World War One. </li></ul><ul><li>Pick a category and decide on a message before you start. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti the other side. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral boosting </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. Impact on Women: Britain <ul><li>Women used in propaganda posters urging men to go to war. </li></ul><ul><li>Because men were away fighting women worked in areas that men normally worked in. </li></ul><ul><li>By November 1918 more than seven million English women were employed in “war work”. </li></ul><ul><li>Many worked making munitions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal pay and conditions to men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked 12 hour days with one day off each month. </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Impact on Women
  94. 94. Women in Uniform: Britain <ul><li>Nursing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many organisations employed nurses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many nurses worked very close to the front lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women’s Land Army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women worked on the land as food production was vital. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1917 there were 260,000 women serving on the land. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women’s Armed Forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Women’s Auxiliary Reserve Corp was established in February 1917. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked as drivers, waitresses, typists, cooks, storemen, packers and mechanics. </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Changes for women: Britain <ul><li>Women who worked had independence and choices about their money. </li></ul><ul><li>Women could go out alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Women smoked in public. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a sexual freedom that came with the crisis and threat of war. </li></ul><ul><li>To enable women to work, skirts became shorter and trousers more common. </li></ul>
  96. 96. The End of the War <ul><li>8 August 1918: In a series of military advances the Germans were driven back to the Hindenberg Line. </li></ul><ul><li>The German Reichstag sought peace. </li></ul><ul><li>An armistice was agreed for November 11. </li></ul>
  97. 97. Peace Conference <ul><li>The Paris Peace Conference started in Paris in January 1919. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was a conference of winning nations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany was not represented. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One aim was to allow ethnic people to have their own homelands but this was not simple or always successful. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a fear of the spread of communism from Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a fear of a strong Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a strong feeling that Germany should pay for starting the war. </li></ul>
  98. 98. Versailles <ul><li>The Versailles Treaty was hard on Germany. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ War Guilt” – Germany to accept full responsibility for starting the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany lost 13% of its European land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The economically valuable Rhineland was occupied for a further 15 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German colonies were given to other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Allies took over the German fleet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The German army was limited to 100,000 men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany and Austria were not allowed to unite. </li></ul></ul>
  99. 99. Post War Europe
  100. 100. The 1920s <ul><li>The next period we will study is the 1920s. </li></ul>

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