Russia 1917 41 revision notes

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Russia 1917 41 revision notes

  1. 1. Revision Notes(GCSE)
  2. 2.  Causes of the revolution March Revolution 1917 November Revolution 1917 Civil Wars 1918-21 Economy 1918-29 Collectivisation of Agriculture Industrialisation Purges N.B.
  3. 3. Back to ContentsRussia was a police Widespread Russia was unfit for state poverty war in 1914 Millions of peasantArmy was badly led soldier deaths on Tsarina Alexandra the Eastern Front Inflation and food Failure of Tsar shortages causing Nicholas II more strikes
  4. 4. Back to Contents1. Russia was a police state  Dumas (Parliament) was ignored  Attempted reform by Witte and Stolypin failed2. Widespread poverty  Strikes increased after 19123. Russia was unfit for war in 1914  Army was badly equipped  Industry unable to produce enough arms  Inadequate transportation4. Army was badly led  Tsar took over and blamed for military defeats and domestic problems
  5. 5. Back to Contents5. Millions of peasant soldier deaths on the Eastern Front  Peasants more angry at giving grain and horses to army6. Tsarina Alexandra  Hated for being German  Taking advice of Rasputin and influencing the Tsar7. Inflation and food shortages causing more strikes8. Failure of Tsar Nicholas II  Ignored or did not understand the situation  Indecisive and seemingly easily led by the Tsarina and advisors
  6. 6. Back to Contents Troops refused to Food riots and Petrograd in hands fire on people andstrikes were crushed of armed allowed food to be by the army revolutionaries given to people Provisional Provisional Government was Government and Government made unpopular with the Petrograd Tsar abdicate continued warSoviet were formed Lenin and Trotsky Bolsheviks “Bread, Peace and returned to attempted and Land” Petrograd failed to take power
  7. 7. Back to Contents1. Food riots and strikes were crushed by the army  Petrograd in February / March2. Troops refused to fire on people and allowed food to be given to people  12 March3. Petrograd in hands of armed revolutionaries  Within 4 days4. Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet were formed  Prince Lvov led the government, full of middle class liberals not representing the people  Lenin led the Soviet and representative of the people5. Provisional Government made Tsar abdicate  15 March
  8. 8. Back to Contents6. Government was unpopular with continued war  Revolutionary workers took over factories  Peasants seized land  Law and order broke out  Troops deserted in their thousands7. Lenin and Trotsky returned to Petrograd  Lenin helped by Germans into Russia from Switzerland ▪ Hope to cause revolution to end war on the Eastern Front8. Bolsheviks attempted and failed to take power  Kerensky formed a new government which continued the war9. “Bread, Peace and Land”  Trotsky planned the seizure of power
  9. 9. Back to ContentsBolsheviks seized Petrograd’s key buildingsincluding the Winter PalaceSoon controlled major cities2 decrees issuedLenin dismissed the elected DumaTreaty of Brest Litovsk
  10. 10. Back to Contents1. Bolsheviks seize power  6-7 November – Bolsheviks seized Petrograd’s key buildings including the Winter Palace ▪ Signal for uprising from naval cruiser (Aurora)  Soon controlled major cities ▪ Little fighting and few casualties ▪ Ministers of the Provisional Government arrested  2 decrees issued ▪ Peace Decree – immediate armistice ▪ Land Decree – abolished private estates and created 25 million small holdings  January 1918 – Lenin dismissed the elected Duma
  11. 11. Back to Contents Treaty of Brest Litovsk – March 1918  Trotsky negotiated with German and Austria- Hungary representatives  Terms were very harsh ▪ Loss of Poland and Baltic states ▪ Independence of Finland and Ukraine ▪ Loss of ¼ of Russia’s coal and iron ▪ 75% of population was lost
  12. 12. Back to ContentsBolsheviks organised a secret police and Red ArmyUS/ British/ French/ Japanese forces invadedWar fought by the Red Army and the WhitesWhite armies were armed by the Allies but disunitedRussia lost millions of people
  13. 13. Back to Contents1. Bolsheviks (now Communists) organised a secret police (Cheka) and Red Army2. US/British/French/Japanese forces invaded Russia 1918-193. War fought by the Red Army (led by Trotsky) and the Whites4. White armies in Ukraine, Baltic and Siberia were armed by the Allies  Disunited and defeated in 19205. Russia lost (approx) 2 million troops in WW1 and maybe even more millions in civil war
  14. 14. Back to Contents War Communism New Economic Policy Lenin’s Death 1924 1918-21 1921-7• Nationalisation • Small private • No obvious• Government control enterprise successor but of grain and wages permitted warned Party about• Fall in output • Rents and charges Stalin• Famine reintroduced on all • Main contenders services were Trotsky, • Peasants could sell Kamenev, Zinoviev surplus produce and Stalin • Stalin’s policy of ‘socialism in one country’ • Stalin outmanoeuvred rivals
  15. 15. Back to Contents 1. War Communism 1918-21  Introduce Marxist theory and rebuild Russia but failed Aims/ Introductions: Disadvantages:A. Nationalised banks and a) Industrial output fell to factories, and banned private 15% of 1913 level trade b) Urban workers returnedB. Rents, railway fares, electricity and gas were free to farm workC. Government seized grain to c) Peasants produced for feed urban populous themselves reducingD. Rationing introduced and wages output to 50.5% of 1913 paid in kind d) Famine led to deaths ofE. Aimed to remove use of money 5 million
  16. 16. Back to Contents1. New Economic Policy 1921-7  Economy deteriorating rapidly, unrest in the countryside, riots in Petrograd, mutiny in Kronstadt  Lenin began NEP March 1921 a) Small private enterprise permitted b) Rents and charges reintroduced on all services c) Peasants could sell surplus produce d) NEP only abandoned with the first 5 Year Plan
  17. 17. Back to Contents Lenin’s Death 1924  No obvious successor but warned Party about Stalin ▪ Main contenders were Trotsky, Kamenev, Zinoviev and Stalin ▪ Stalin held two important posts and many owed their jobs to him ▪ Policy of ‘socialism in one country’ ▪ Stalin outmanoeuvred rivals by expelling them, firing them or having them in exile to ensure his own succession ▪ By late 1927, Stalin was sole leader and Trotsky was exiled
  18. 18. Back to Contents • Larger farming units are more efficient • Increased output • Cheaper foodWhy Collectivise? • Transferral of work from agriculture to industrial • Assets amalgamated to form a Kolkhoz • Collective in theory under control of the workers but in practice run by a member of the Party • Produce bought very cheaply by the State Organisation • Kulaks opposed collectivisation • Thousand of Kulaks killed or deported • Massive drop in outputConsequences of • Up 50% of livestock was slaughtered Collectivisation • Famine in the early 1930’s
  19. 19. Back to Contents1. Why Collectivise?  Larger farming units are more efficient ▪ Less workers required and more machinery used  Increased output ▪ Allowing for exportation to raise money to buy machinery  Cheaper food ▪ Less need to raise wages of industrial workers ▪ More money to buy key items from abroad  Transferral of work from agriculture to industrial
  20. 20. Back to Contents2. Organisation  Assets from a number of small farms amalgamated to form a collective (Kolkhoz)  Collective in theory under control of the workers but in practice run by a member of the Party  Produce bought very cheaply by the State  Process began in 1928, by 1937 most arable land in collectives
  21. 21. Back to Contents3. Consequences of Collectivisation  Wealthy peasants (Kulaks) opposed collectivisation ▪ Destroyed assets to prevent State getting them  Thousand of Kulaks killed or deported to labour camps  Massive drop in output because reorganisation disrupted sowing and harvesting  Kulaks removed but they were the best, most efficient and successful farmers  Up 50% of livestock was slaughtered  Famine in the early 1930’s leading to deaths of (approx.) 10 million peasants
  22. 22. Back to ContentsStalin believed in State Planning5 Year Plans were introduced in 1928, 1932 and 1937Aims: • Industrialise • Plans were under control of the State planning agency Gosplan • Emphasis was on heavy industry, coal, oil and steel • Consumer products were in the 3rd plan but war interrupted schemes • Industrial production and production of electricity increased • Most new industrial areas were away from possible threat if there was warResults: • By 1941 industrial production was 4 times that of 1914 • Many factories were inefficient with unrealistic targets • By 1941, many millions were better housed, better educated, better health care and (just) better fed • State propaganda made all successes attributed to Stalin
  23. 23. Back to Contents1. Stalin believed in State Planning2. 5 Year Plans were introduced in 1928, 1932 and 19373. Aims:  Industrialise the USSR but not under capitalism  Plans were under control of the State planning agency Gosplan  Emphasis was on heavy industry, coal, oil and steel ▪ Consumer products were in the 3rd plan but war interrupted schemes  Industrial production and production of electricity increased with some workers becoming national heros ▪ E.g. Stakhanov  Prestige projects were built with slave labour and high cost of life  Most new industrial areas were away from possible threat if there was war (Central Russia or Siberia)
  24. 24. Back to Contents4. Results  By 1941 industrial production was 4 times that of 1914 ▪ High cost to life  Many factories were inefficient with unrealistic targets ▪ Targets that weren’t met led to deaths of  By 1941, many millions were better housed, better educated, better health care and (just) better fed  State propaganda made all successes attributed to Stalin
  25. 25. Back to Contents It aimed to create terrorStalin was determined so prevent criticising He purged many to prevent any Stalin or the State and hundreds of thousands opposition make people work harder 1934 saw the Many of Lenin’sassassination of Kirov, 1936-38 show trials colleagues were popular head of the were held condemned as enemies Communist Party in of the people Leningrad Trotsky was Stalin used the purges1937 saw a severe purge assassinated in Mexico to consolidate hisof leading Army officers City in 1941 after he was leadership exiled in 1928
  26. 26. Back to Contents1. Stalin was determined to prevent any opposition2. He purged many hundreds of thousands, either sent to Gulags (camps) or killed3. It aimed to create terror so prevent criticising Stalin or the State and make people work harder4. 1934 saw the assassination of Kirov, popular head of the Communist Party in Leningrad  Stalin probably ordered it though other rivals were made scapegoats5. 1936-38 show trials were held
  27. 27. Back to Contents6. Many of Lenin’s colleagues were condemned as enemies of the people  Millions were convicted and sent to Gulags or executed7. 1937 saw a severe purge of leading Army officers  Severe consequences for WW28. Stalin used the purges to consolidate his leadership  Collectivisation and industrialisation gained him many enemies9. Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico City in 1941 after he was exiled in 1928  Pursued for his important role in the Revolution and Civil War
  28. 28. Back to Contents1917-19• Use the term Bolsheviks then Communists1918-90• Use the terms Soviet Union or USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)

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