Lord Palmerston


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Short presentation on the life of Lord Palmerston

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Lord Palmerston

  1. 1. Lord PalmerstonA Brief Introduction to his Life
  2. 2. Contents Who he was Background Personal life Role in politics Foreign Secretary Methods• Gun boat Diplomacy Relations with EuropeanPowers Poland 1930 Belgium 1930 Spain and Portugal 1930 Don Pacifico Affair 1850 Eastern Question• Mehemet Ali Crisiss Home Secretary Interference with foreignpolicy Prime Minister Crimean War American Civil War Conclusions Effectiveness Significance
  3. 3. Who was Palmerston? Henry John Temple, 3rdViscount Palmerston From Irish aristocracy but keento be English Very popular with the public butmixed in Parliament Hated by Queen Victoria Womaniser Committed to peace but hadBritish interests at heart Began career as a Whig butended it as a Liberal Jingoistic and great orator
  4. 4. Years in Politics Foreign Secretary 22nd November 1830 – 15th November 1934 18th April 1835 – 2nd September 1841 6th July 1846 – 26th December 1851 Home Secretary 28th December 1852 – 6th February 1855 Prime Minister 6th February 1855 – 19th February 1858 12th June 1859 – 18th October 1865
  5. 5. Role in Politics Seen as a later starter for politics Relations with Wellington Played major powers against each other Never really lets go of foreign policy One major policy was to abolish the slave trade Brought down government after fired Napoleon III dispute PM due to popularity with public Same reason Queen couldn’t fire him Last PM to die in office
  6. 6. Foreign Secretary Three terms in office under this position Seen as successful but controversial in methodsused Particularly gun-boat diplomacy In politics in what is typically seen as the height ofBritish power British relations with France key Eastern Question continues to loom Independence of Greece Mehemet Ali Crisis’s
  7. 7. Gun-Boat DiplomacyThe Opium Wars TRADE! Tea major import at home 1841 – Treaty of Nanking Enhanced Pam’sreputation Tories critical Admired in and out ofParliament Britain gained Hong Kong(only returned in 1997)Independence of Greece 1821-1830 Palmerston urged Wellingtoninto active interference Combined with Russia andFrance Defeat of Egyptian fleet Popular at home Leads to the Mehmet Alicrisis’s French wanted Egypt, Russiawanted Straits
  8. 8. The Opium Wars Use of gun-boat diplomacy wassuccessful in China
  9. 9. Relations with European Powers Allies with France Particularly unpopular with public Historically enemies Napoleon III Anglo-Russian relations Underlying hostility Reluctant to go to war with each other Belief Ottoman Empire must be kept ‘alive’ by all themajor powers Britain was Liberal but not Revolutionary Independence of Belgium Iberian Peninsular Poland revolt
  10. 10. Map of Europe 1830 Britain, Russia, Austria, Franceand Prussia all major powers
  11. 11. Suppression of Poland 1830 Not much that Britain could do Militarily weak No diplomatic footing to use Within Prussian and Russian territory Had to just sit by and watch Unpopular at home
  12. 12. Kingdom of Belgium 1830 Important to Britain due to geographical location Threat of being invaded Balance of power in Europe if Dutch or Frenchcontrolled Belgium France wanted to annex Belgium Happy for it to be independent Question of King of Belgians almost led to war Resolved by Prince from England allowed to marry lesserPrincess from France Operated like Canning
  13. 13. Queens of Spain and Portugal Youthful Queens in Spain and Portugal Problem of who they should marry Opposition from absolutists in their own countries Britain felt the need to preserve the constitutionalist’sQueens France wanted some power there Treaty for pacification signed in London 22nd April1834 France reluctant Maria II of Portugal married Napoleon I’s grandson(suited France), then German Prince (suited Britain) Isabella II of Spain married her Spanish cousin whichsuited France not Britain
  14. 14. Don Pacifico Affair 1850 With Greece independent it was under theprotection of Britain, Russia and France The claim: Police did nothing while Don Pacifico’s home wasvandalised Some of the mob included sons of a government minister Appealed to Greek government for compensation but lost Turned to help from Britain as a British citizen fromGibraltar The result was a blockade on Greece causingdiplomatic tensions between powers
  15. 15. Eastern Question Ottoman Empire at point of collapse If it collapses who gets it – war inevitable No one can afford a war but no diplomatic ‘carving up’ ofOttoman Empire likely to be agreed Russia needed Black Sea as its unfrozen and thusneeds access to the Straits – under Ottomancontrol Britain and France worry about Russian power Austrians weakening but typically allies of Russia Coincides with 1842’s Reform Act
  16. 16. Mehmet Ali Crisis’sFirst Crisis 1830 Egyptians not happy withcompensation for losses inGreek revolt Went to war with Ottomans Russia there to help butFrance and Britain busyelsewhere Led to Treaty of UnkiarSkelessi 1833 Led to Straits Problem Straits closed when Russia atwar France and Britain unhappy atRussian expansion and threatSecond Crisis 1839 Sultan dies and chance forEgyptians to try expansion Britain and Russia interveneto stop collapse of Ottomans France pro-Mehmet Ali butnot strong enough for war Compromise reached 1841 London StraitsConvention Re-established previous rule ofthe Straits Preservation of Ottomans
  17. 17. Straits and Crimea Map of the Black Sea includesStraits and Crimea
  18. 18. Role as Home Secretary Interfered with foreign policy continuously Crimean War Some believed he helped created Although many believed he was the only one that could helpBritain Others now believe it may not have happened if he wasForeign Secretary There because they had to have him there in a Whig-Peelite coalition Palmerston strongly opposed much of Russell’s planslike the urban working class being able to vote He resigned but was persuaded to return
  19. 19. Prime Minister Queen reluctant to make Palmerston PM Little choice when others declined position Popularity also a major factor Crimean War Ended due to peace talks when Alexander II ascended tothe throne France major winner Peace treaty signed 30th March 1856 Second Opium War Palmerston backed legally and morally wrong actions Popular with public, winning the biggest majority since 1835
  20. 20. Second Premiership American Civil War Gave Confederation a ship despite being ‘neutral’ When North won they wanted compensation Palmerston refused to pay or refer to the dispute• Gladstone would pay $15,500,000 in gold but keep Canada He won another general election in July 1865 Problems in Ireland Suspension of trial-by-jury Monitor Americans going to Ireland
  21. 21. Death He died 18th October 1865 Wanted o be buried at Romsey Abbey Given a State funeral and buried at WestminsterAbby 27th October 1865 Fourth person to be buried there who wasn’troyalty Sir Isaac Newton Lord Nelson Duke of Wellington
  22. 22. Conclusions Very popular with the public despite some decisions Allies with France Recognition of Napoleon III Mostly effective at securing British interests Belgium Spain and Portugal Straits Convention Opium Wars Not ‘soft’ on Foreign Policy and seen as his greatstrength American compensation, compare to Gladstone Remembered as light-hearted Florence Nightingale
  23. 23. Disagreement Some disagreement lies with whether he was aLiberal or Conservative or both... Sir Henry Balwer and Evelyn Ashley call him aLiberal D. Southgate and J. Vincent claim he was a Liberalin Europe but Conservative at home E.D. Steele claims he was a Progressive Personal opinion... he was pragmatic!