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War Communism Revolts

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War Communism Revolts

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War Communism Revolts

  1. 1. War Communism - Revolts Key Terms, Events, Names: Kronstadt, Tambov Revolt, Michal Tukhachevsky, Krassnaya Gorka
  2. 2. Tambov Revolt Revolt in the Countryside: Peasants •In the countryside, around 7 million peasants have died of starvation. •In 1918 alone, over 8,000 members of requisition squads were murdered. •Mothers are tying their children to opposite corners of their huts for fear they will eat each other. •The Tambov Rebellion has broken out as a widespread peasant uprising with articulated demands. This is merely the largest rebellion amongst many which have occurred in the Ukraine, the Urals, and western Siberia. Revolt in the Countryside: Peasants •In the countryside, around 7 million peasants have died of starvation. •In 1918 alone, over 8,000 members of requisition squads were murdered. •Mothers are tying their children to opposite corners of their huts for fear they will eat each other. •The Tambov Rebellion has broken out as a widespread peasant uprising with articulated demands. This is merely the largest rebellion amongst many which have occurred in the Ukraine, the Urals, and western Siberia.
  3. 3. Kronstadt Revolt Revolt in the Towns: Workers & Soldiers •In the towns, riots have broken out in Petrograd and Moscow, which have seen their populations fall by 70% and 50% respectively •Unpopular Bolshevik response: • Compulsory labour • Vesenkha (Ministry of the Economy) to replace the influence of the Soviets. •Even the sailors at the Kronstadt naval base – once described by Lenin as “The vanguard of the revolution” – have rebelled •Tukhachevsky warns us that this could easily bring down our regime if handled badly! Revolt in the Towns: Workers & Soldiers •In the towns, riots have broken out in Petrograd and Moscow, which have seen their populations fall by 70% and 50% respectively •Unpopular Bolshevik response: • Compulsory labour • Vesenkha (Ministry of the Economy) to replace the influence of the Soviets. •Even the sailors at the Kronstadt naval base – once described by Lenin as “The vanguard of the revolution” – have rebelled •Tukhachevsky warns us that this could easily bring down our regime if handled badly!
  4. 4. How should the Politburo deal with these revolts? In a moment you will be provided with the demands of both the Tambov Rebels and the Kronstadt Rebels. Before that, however, briefly discuss what you ANTICIPATE will be their main complaints, based on what you know about the state of Russia in 1921. You will now have to act as the Politburo and make a decision of what to do about these revolts. You will be asked to analyse the “Tambov Programme” and the “Kronstadt Manifesto” to summarise: 1.What the rebels are particularly unhappy about; 2.What you all propose as solutions. Report back to the meeting with your findings. Decide how we should react. Use this information to develop your table (e.g. outlining the various political, social, economic, military problems faced by Lenin at this stage). In a moment you will be provided with the demands of both the Tambov Rebels and the Kronstadt Rebels. Before that, however, briefly discuss what you ANTICIPATE will be their main complaints, based on what you know about the state of Russia in 1921. You will now have to act as the Politburo and make a decision of what to do about these revolts. You will be asked to analyse the “Tambov Programme” and the “Kronstadt Manifesto” to summarise: 1.What the rebels are particularly unhappy about; 2.What you all propose as solutions. Report back to the meeting with your findings. Decide how we should react. Use this information to develop your table (e.g. outlining the various political, social, economic, military problems faced by Lenin at this stage).
  5. 5. Kronstadt Sailors • Kronstadt is a military base located just outside Petrograd. It is a fortress which overlooks the city. • The soldiers and sailors stationed at Kronsdadt had previously been loyal supporters of the Bolsheviks. • They were in charge of the ship Aurora during the 1917 October Revolution. • Trotsky called them “the reddest of red” and most Russians considered them to be closely aligned with the Bolshevik cause. • Kronstadt is a military base located just outside Petrograd. It is a fortress which overlooks the city. • The soldiers and sailors stationed at Kronsdadt had previously been loyal supporters of the Bolsheviks. • They were in charge of the ship Aurora during the 1917 October Revolution. • Trotsky called them “the reddest of red” and most Russians considered them to be closely aligned with the Bolshevik cause.
  6. 6. Kronstadt Forts
  7. 7. Tension Building • In reality, they had a reputation for acting spontaneously and reacted to conditions (rather being swayed by a particular ideology). • By February 1921 tensions were brewing. • Many Kronsdadters were of peasant origin and received letters from home highlighting the political oppression and economic misery of War Communism. • Many were also witnessing the situation first hand during periods of leave in Petrograd. • In reality, they had a reputation for acting spontaneously and reacted to conditions (rather being swayed by a particular ideology). • By February 1921 tensions were brewing. • Many Kronsdadters were of peasant origin and received letters from home highlighting the political oppression and economic misery of War Communism. • Many were also witnessing the situation first hand during periods of leave in Petrograd.
  8. 8. Tension Building • They formed a Provisional Revolutionary Committee and issued a serious of political, economic and social demands. • The document (which was similar to the petition of Father Gapon in 1905) enraged the Bolshevik leaders. • Trotsky organised an immediate military response. • It was a serious threat to the Bolsheviks as the sailors were highly trained military men. • Along with their political petition, they hoisted a flag of revolt, declaring they would fight until Soviet rule was overthrown. • They formed a Provisional Revolutionary Committee and issued a serious of political, economic and social demands. • The document (which was similar to the petition of Father Gapon in 1905) enraged the Bolshevik leaders. • Trotsky organised an immediate military response. • It was a serious threat to the Bolsheviks as the sailors were highly trained military men. • Along with their political petition, they hoisted a flag of revolt, declaring they would fight until Soviet rule was overthrown.
  9. 9. Reds Responce • As it was Winter, the sea around the Kronsdadt fortress was frozen. • Trotsky wanted to complete the attack before it thawed as this would allow the Kronsdadt rebels to use battleships against the Bolsheviks. • The Red Army first defeated revolting garrisons at Krassnaya Gorka which enabled them to have a base from which they could launch attacks • The first wave of Red Army troops was low in number and poorly equipped and was driven back from the base. • Trotsky increased the number to 60,000 and equipped them with white camouflage. • They also had heavy artillery and so could attack the fortress for almost three weeks. • As it was Winter, the sea around the Kronsdadt fortress was frozen. • Trotsky wanted to complete the attack before it thawed as this would allow the Kronsdadt rebels to use battleships against the Bolsheviks. • The Red Army first defeated revolting garrisons at Krassnaya Gorka which enabled them to have a base from which they could launch attacks • The first wave of Red Army troops was low in number and poorly equipped and was driven back from the base. • Trotsky increased the number to 60,000 and equipped them with white camouflage. • They also had heavy artillery and so could attack the fortress for almost three weeks.
  10. 10. Reds Responce • On March 17 the Red Army and CHECKA units defeated the Kronsdadters as their defences collapsed. • Thousands of Krondadt rebels feld across the ice towards the Finland border. • Around 2000 were caught by the Bolsheviks and executed. • It was clear from this event that the Bolsheviks needed to relax conditions in Russia immediately or risk another Revolution. • The result was the NEP (New Economic Policy). • On March 17 the Red Army and CHECKA units defeated the Kronsdadters as their defences collapsed. • Thousands of Krondadt rebels feld across the ice towards the Finland border. • Around 2000 were caught by the Bolsheviks and executed. • It was clear from this event that the Bolsheviks needed to relax conditions in Russia immediately or risk another Revolution. • The result was the NEP (New Economic Policy).

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