Space-aware Design Factors forLocated Learning Activities Supportedwith Smart Phones∆ Patricia Santos , Ω Mar Pérez-Sanagu...
“Let’s face it: For my children and for millionslike them, life will be an open phone test. Theyare among the first genera...
OutlineI. IntroductionII. Proposal: space-aware design factorsIII. Indoors & outdoors M-Learning scenariosIV. ConclusionsV...
I. IntroductionSmart phones in education                Outdoors           New m-learning activities      Everywhere/Ever...
II. ProposalSpace-Aware Design Factors Proposal: A framework to assist practitioners in the design of m-learning located ...
II. ProposalThe Space factor The space factor considers characteristics of the physical spacewhere the located m-learning...
II. ProposalThe Connectivity factor The connectivity refers to the way of connecting with the EducationalResources (ER) ...
II. ProposalThe Guidance factor The guidance factor refers to the representations used to guide thelearners along the act...
II. ProposalThe Position-based Technology factor The position-based technology factor refers to the technology usedto ass...
III. M-Learning ScenariosCombining the Space-Aware Design Factors     4 categories of Indoors and Outdoors located m-learn...
III. M-Learning ScenariosIndoors with Internet Example: UbiCicero                                         Museum like type...
III. M-Learning ScenariosIndoors without InternetExample: Discovering the Campus!Learning about the campus                ...
III. M-Learning ScenariosIndoors without InternetExample: Discovering St. Llorenç!A botany experience in situ             ...
III. M-Learning ScenariosOutdoors with InternetExample: Discovering Barcelona!Learning about the city of Barcelona        ...
V. ConclusionsA framework of 4 Space-aware design factors to the design of m-Learning scenarios: Identification of the sp...
VI. Current & Future workThe 4 space-aware under analysis Current work: framework validation 4 m-learning workshops with t...
Questions?             17
Thank you!ContactPatricia Santos: patricia. santos@upf.eduMar Pérez-Sanagustín: mmpsanag@it.uc3m.esDavinia Hernández-Leo: ...
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MUE2012-Space-aware Design Factors for Located Learning Activities Supported with Smart Pones

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presented at the 6th International Conference on Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering (MUE, 2012) the paper “Space-aware Design FActors for Located Learning Activities Supported with Smart Phones” a work by Patricia Santos, Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, Davinia Hernández-Leo & Josep Blat.

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  • Good morning every one, thank you for comming. I'm Mar pérez-sanagustín and I'm going to present a work that I have been done with my colleagues Patricia santos... and that presents a new way of thinking about how to benefit from the opportunities that mobile technology afford for education. 1. New york times new. Few months ago, in the New York Times, Will Richardson (the co-founder of “Powerful learning practice” wrote an opinion article that stated clearly an idea that I have had in mind for a long time. He asked us to face a reality: “Today children are the first generation who will carry access to sum of knowledge and literally billions of potential teachers in their pockets. Given that reality, shouldn’t we be teaching our students how to use mobile devices well?” And this made me think, YES, We should!! But how? 2. Teachers are the first target if we want to introduce mobile devices as a learning tool. From our point of view, teachers are the target. Therfore, the question will be, can we help teachers in the design of these experiences to start teaching how to use mobile devices well? Then, I went to my mum, that is a 2dary school teacher and aked her if she would be initerested on preparing experiences using mobile phones... And she started to asking me... Yes I would like to but... what do I need? In which situations could I apply these technologies.... 3. We can help teachers with our experience This made us think realized that, althoug teachers are motivated, they do not have the resources about how to use this... If we help teachers to apply mobile devices, we will start talking the language of our students. But we do! We have three years of experience designing scnearios that used mobile devices so.. why don't we put all this knowledge together to help my mum and teachers like her to design their own located learning activities? 4. We present a frameworks of space-aware design factors for located learning activities supported with smartphones. And this is what I'm going to present today: a framework that collects all the space-aware factors that we have identified that affect the design of located activities using smart phones.
  • 1. First, I will start the presnetation highlighting the main opportunities that, from our point of view, mobile access affords. 2. I will continue introducing the Space-aware factors that we propose 3. Then, I will explaing the four types of mobile learning scenarios that could be derived from the combination of the factors in the framework, indoors and outdoors. 4. Finally, I will end up with a summary of the contributions 5. and the future research lines derived from this work.
  • 1. First, I will start the presnetation highlighting the main opportunities that, from our point of view, mobile access affords. 2. I will continue introducing the Space-aware factors that we propose 3. Then, I will explaing the four types of mobile learning scenarios that could be derived from the combination of the factors in the framework, indoors and outdoors. 4. Finally, I will end up with a summary of the contributions 5. and the future research lines derived from this work.
  • 1. There are two characteristics of mobile learning: one can learn everywhere and anytime. There are two characteristics that mobile devices a good tool for learning: 1) students bring their device anywhere which anables access to information, and then learn, anywhere and 2) having the device on the pocket also enables access to this information anytime. That is, the main potential is when we use mobile devices for preparing located activities. This are, at a first sight, the characteristics that easily make us think about the opportunities that mobile leanring afford. 2. However, there are other characteristics that are not easily considered by practitioners and that are, in fact, very important to design loacated activities. Then, the question is: Which are these characteristics?
  • 1. In this work, we propose a framework to assiss practitioners in the design of m-leanring located activities 2. The framework is composed by 4 Space-aware design factors. The space The connectivity The postion-based technologies The guidance These factors have been extracted from the analysisi and implementation of real situations that have been iterativelly designed with teachers and carried by students in diverse located spaces with different characteristics. Let's go into the details of each factor.
  • 1. The first factor is the Space. The first thing that we should consider is where do we want to do the activity. Is the activity going to take place into a museum or in a natural park? 2. Indoors: In the first case, the activity willb e indoors, and the activity will be conditioned by the constraints of the architectural components of the building. 3. Outdoors: In the second case, there will be not architectural constraints but we should consider the accessibility of such as space. 4. Therefore, the space factors considers the characteristics of the physical space where the activity is going to be conducted.
  • 1. The second factor is the Connectivity. When designing m-learning activities one important thing to consider is how the resources to be shown to the students will be located. This will depend directly to the type of connectivity that we have in the space where the activity is going to take place. 2. If there is internet connection , the ER could be located in the cloud 3. Whereas, if there is no internet connection , such us in some spaces with no 3G coverage, the ER should be physically located on the smart phone.
  • 1. The third factor is the Guidance. One of the aspects we should think about when designing m-located based activities is the guidance we offer to the students. We have to realize that the activity is not happening in a closed controlled spaces such as a classroom but in a space where students will be not always controlled by the teacher. For this reason, we should give them a guide to locate themselves in the space and to be able of continuing with the experience. 2. We could provide maps that are updated considering the user position 3. We could provide static maps in paper or locally stored in the smartphone without giving the user their current position. Although we will see that this factor is highly related with the connectivity factor, this is something that should also be considered accoring to objectives of the learning experience. If we want to make our students to practice their oriantation skills or not...
  • 1. Finally, the last factor we have identified is the Position-based technology available in the smartphones. This factor refers to the technology used to associate the Ers and the activity description with the physical space position. There are two main types of technologies that we could employ. 2. GPS coordinates or bluetooth , that enable the Ers to automatically appear in the mobile device during the activity. 3. The use of TAG-based technologies , such us QR codes or NFC tags. In this case, the ERs are associated to a particular tag and this tag should be located into a particular physical space before the activity by the practitioners.
  • 1. But, when designing m-leanring located based activities what it is more important than considering each of the factors separatelly is to consider how these factors relate to each other. 2. In this table you can see how four space-aware factors can be combined. Two categories of m-learning scenarios can be defined from this combination: outdoors and indoors. 3. As you can see, these categories result of combining the type of space and the connectivity. And, at the same time, the combination of these two factors will determine the type of guidance and position-based technology to be used. 4. Let me show you four different examples of scenarios that match some of the combinations fo these factors.
  • 1. First, if we have an Indoors space with Internet connectivity, this will allow us to design an scenario providing as guidance a local map/cloud map, and Using both tag-based technologies and Bloototh for accessing the positioned Ers . This is typically the situation of museum-like type of experiences. 2. This is the case of the Ubicero project. Students had to explore the artworks in a museum. Therefore: - The space was a museum - The connextivity was inernet - The guidance was a map prepared by the teacher previously - They used RFID tags to access to the ERs.
  • 1. Second , if we have an Indoors space WITHOUT Internet connectivity, this will allow us to design an scenario providing as guidance ONLY WITH A LOCAL MAP, and Using both tag-based technologies and Bloototh for accessing the positioned ERs . This is typically the situation of open spaces in which the phisical locationsar very close to each other and the GPS cannot be used. 2. This is the case of the Discovering the Campus Together project. Students had to learn about the campus by accessing to a set of NFC tags that were located around the campus explaining its main characteristics. Therefore: - The space was the campus university - The connextivity was NO internet - The guidance was a map prepared by the teacher previously. Not possible to make a cloud map. - They used RFID tags to access to the Ers. Not possible bluetooth.
  • 1. And finally , if we have an OUTDOORS space WITH INTERNET Internet connectivity, this will allow us to design an scenario providing as guidance IN A CLOUD MAP, and Using both GPS TECHNOLOGIES for accessing the positioned Ers . This is typically the situation of open spaces in which the learning locations are separated too close for the GPS. That's why we complemented some areas with QR codes. 2. This is the case of the Discovering Sant Llorenç!. Students had to learn about the the plants in the Natural park of St llorenç. Therefore: - The space was the natural park - The connextivity was WITH internet - The guidance was a map prepared by the teacher previously WITH QR CODES IN THE AREAS WITH BAD GPS CONNECTIVITY. - They used GPS tags to access to the Ers AND tag based technologies.
  • 1. Third , if we have an OUTDOORS space WITH INTERNET Internet connectivity, this will allow us to design an scenario providing as guidance IN A CLOUD MAP, and Using both GPS TECHNOLOGIES for accessing the positioned ERs . This is typically the situation of open spaces in which the learning locations are separated enough for being appreciated by the GPS technologies . 2. This is the case of the Discovering Barcelona. Students had to learn about the city of barcelona. We used the tool QuesTInSitu, this tool enables creating routes of questions assotiating them to goelocated coordinates. Therefore: - The space was the city of Barcelona - The connextivity was WITH internet - The guidance was a map prepared by the teacher previously BECAUSE AT THAT TIME THE TOOL DID NOT SUPPORT CLOUD MAPS. NOW, IT DOES SUPPORT IT. - They used GPS tags to access to the ERs.
  • 1. Therefore, what we have presented in this work is a framework that proposes 4 space-aware factors to support practitioners in the design of m-learning located experiences. In few words, we have to identify the space where the activity occurs, which is the connectivity to determine the postiibon -based technology to be used and the guidance that we can provide to the students.
  • 1. I have to say that this is a first-approach framework. However, we are currently validating it with several practitioners in order to improve and see to which point it is useful for our supporting the design of these type of m-learning activities. 2. On the other hand, we are planning new experiements to identify new factors and extend or modify the current framework. 3. And Finally, our final aim is to provide not only a paper-based framework but authoring tools able of recommending tools depending on the factors. So.. comming back to the initial question: can we help teachers to teach how to use mobile phones? We contend that the framework we propose is a first approach. Because this framework collects the experiences of a set of good practices. And now, I can come back to my mother and start talking her language.
  • MUE2012-Space-aware Design Factors for Located Learning Activities Supported with Smart Pones

    1. 1. Space-aware Design Factors forLocated Learning Activities Supportedwith Smart Phones∆ Patricia Santos , Ω Mar Pérez-Sanagustín, ∆ Davinia Hernández Leo & ∆Josep Blat∆ UPF – Grup de Tecnologies InteractivesΩ UC3M- Grupo de Aplicaciones y Servicios TelemáticosJuly 12th, 2012 1
    2. 2. “Let’s face it: For my children and for millionslike them, life will be an open phone test. Theyare among the first generation who will carryaccess to the sum of human knowledge andliterally billions of potential teachers in theirpockets. (…) Given that reality, shouldn’t we beteaching our students how to use mobile deviceswell?Will Richardson, We live in a mobile world, The New York Times (The opinion Pages) 4th January 2012 2
    3. 3. OutlineI. IntroductionII. Proposal: space-aware design factorsIII. Indoors & outdoors M-Learning scenariosIV. ConclusionsV. Current & Future work 3
    4. 4. I. IntroductionSmart phones in education Outdoors New m-learning activities  Everywhere/Everytime activities  Located activities Indoors Which are the maincharacteristics of mobile devices that we have to consider for designing innovative m-learning scenarios? 4
    5. 5. II. ProposalSpace-Aware Design Factors Proposal: A framework to assist practitioners in the design of m-learning located activities 4 Space-Aware Design factors extracted from the analysis andimplementation of real scenarios  The Space  The Connectivity  The Position-based technologies  The Guidance 5
    6. 6. II. ProposalThe Space factor The space factor considers characteristics of the physical spacewhere the located m-learning activity is conducted Indoors: Closed physical spacedetermined by the constraints of thearchitectural components  Outdoors: Open physical spaces not determined by the constraints of the architectural component 6
    7. 7. II. ProposalThe Connectivity factor The connectivity refers to the way of connecting with the EducationalResources (ER) Internet: The ER can be storedin the cloud.  No Internet: The ERs have to be stored locally on the smart phone 7
    8. 8. II. ProposalThe Guidance factor The guidance factor refers to the representations used to guide thelearners along the activity Cloud map: the map canbe updated considering thereal time position of thedevice.  Local map: the map is static (paper or locally located in the smart-phone) 8
    9. 9. II. ProposalThe Position-based Technology factor The position-based technology factor refers to the technology usedto associate the ERs and the activity description with the physicalposition.  GPS coordinates/Bluetooth: the ERs automatically appear to the learner in a particular location.  QR-Codes / RFID technologies: the ERs have been associated physically into a particular space. 9
    10. 10. III. M-Learning ScenariosCombining the Space-Aware Design Factors 4 categories of Indoors and Outdoors located m-learning scenarios mediated with smart-phones 10
    11. 11. III. M-Learning ScenariosIndoors with Internet Example: UbiCicero Museum like type of Learning about artworks experiences  ERs can change on runtime  Maps can change dynamically according to the learners activity, but only those parts related with the ERs Ghiani, G. et al. (2009),UbiCicero: a location-aware, multi-device museum guide. Interacting with computers, 21(4): 288-303. 11
    12. 12. III. M-Learning ScenariosIndoors without InternetExample: Discovering the Campus!Learning about the campus Open spaces with close learning physical locations  ERs are locally stored and fixed once the activity starts  Fixed maps Pérez-Sanagustín et al. (2012), Discovering the Campus Together: a mobile and computer-based learning experience. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 35(1): 176-188. 12
    13. 13. III. M-Learning ScenariosIndoors without InternetExample: Discovering St. Llorenç!A botany experience in situ Open spaces with areas with GPS connectivity  ERs are locally stored and fixed once the activity starts  Fixed Maps 13
    14. 14. III. M-Learning ScenariosOutdoors with InternetExample: Discovering Barcelona!Learning about the city of Barcelona Open spaces with GPS connectivity  ERs can change on runtime  Maps can change dynamically according to the learners activity Santos et al. (2011), QuesTInSitu: From tests to routes for assessment in situ activities. Computers & Education, 57(4): 2517-2534. 14
    15. 15. V. ConclusionsA framework of 4 Space-aware design factors to the design of m-Learning scenarios: Identification of the space where the activity occurs Which connectivity is available for connecting physical positions toERs Space Connectivity to determine the position-based technology tobe used Space + Connectivity to determine the guidance facilitated to thelearners 15
    16. 16. VI. Current & Future workThe 4 space-aware under analysis Current work: framework validation 4 m-learning workshops with teachers using the framework to design their own experiences: 12 participants (Institute of Educational Sciences (ICE) Girona) + 7 participants (Good practices workshop –UPF) + 17 participants (Master of Education and Communication- UAB). Future work  New experiments to identify new factors and extend the framework.  A recommender-authoring tool for teachers with a mash-up of applications to technologically support the design of m-learning scenarios. 16
    17. 17. Questions? 17
    18. 18. Thank you!ContactPatricia Santos: patricia. santos@upf.eduMar Pérez-Sanagustín: mmpsanag@it.uc3m.esDavinia Hernández-Leo: davinia.hernandez@upf.eduJosep Blat: josep.blat@upf.edu 18
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