Wildlife and Watershed  Friendly  Residential Landscape for Central Indiana Demonstration Property Prepared for and with G...
Thanks <ul><li>Lead Advisor:  Hamilton County Soil and Water Conservation District, Shaena Reinhart  </li></ul><ul><li>Adv...
Why? <ul><li>Wildlife Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife and wildlife habitat provide aesthetic, ecological, educational,...
Demonstration Property Overview <ul><li>Single Family Residence, Subdivision in Fishers, Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>1.75 ac...
The Site North Ash Trees Objective House
Objective About Family Friendly Need multiple outdoor options for an active family Watershed Friendly Minimize water and n...
Projects vs. Objectives *Soil animals
Rain Gardens RG RG A rain garden is a depression in your property designed to catch rainwater. Planted with native species...
Rain Garden Site #1
Rain Gardens Process Photos
Rain Garden Site #2
Rain Garden 2 final
Rain Gardens:  Species List * These plants should not be in the rain garden bowl.  Name Type Origin Bloom Height Exposure ...
Native Trees & Shrubs Native T & S Low maintenance, hardy, benefit wildlife <ul><li>Native Trees from Department of Natura...
Native Trees and Shrubs DNR Seedlings
Trees and shrubs Process Photos
Native Trees:  Species List Name Mature Light Soil About Ht Yrs Washington Hawthorne Crataegus phaenopyrum 15’-30’ 5 Full ...
Native Shrubs:  Species List Name Mature Light Soil About Ht. Yrs Silky Dogwood Cornus amomum 5’- 10’ 3 Partial shade Well...
Native Vines, Flowers & Groundcovers:  Species List Name Mature Light Soil About Ht. Yrs Wild Ginger Asarum canadense 5” 1...
Prairie Native prairies are a valuable food source for beneficial birds and insects. <ul><li>The Site </li></ul><ul><li>Fu...
Prairie
Trees and shrubs Process Photos
Prairie:  Species List Name Type Origin Bloom Height Exposure Moisture Little Bluestem Schizachrium scoparium Grass Native...
Garden <ul><li>The Site </li></ul><ul><li>Located on site of invasive Asian Honeysuckle Bush (removed March 2010) </li></u...
Vegetable Garden
Trees and shrubs Process Photos
Compost Builds soil, reduces waste, and  minimizes need for additional soil amendments <ul><li>Recycled shipping pallets <...
Compost Station
Organic lawncare does not harm the soil animals that improve our soil. Less fertilizer runoff means less impact to our wat...
Organic Lawn-care Organic Lawn-Care:  Did it Work?
Don’t expect a monoculture  Expect worms and birds and moles <ul><li>Corn Gluten </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable fertilizer &...
Backup Materials Insert final photos  Done: May 14, 2010 1. Emerald Ash Borer Introduction 2. Compost Tea Recipe 3. Animal...
Emerald Ash Borer Infestation -Likely  100% Die Off  of all untreated  Ash Trees  in Hamilton and Marion County    (but wh...
<ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Exotic beetle discovered in Michigan in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>North American ash tre...
<ul><li>Community Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Property values </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of mature tree canopy </li></ul><ul><li>...
Mitigation Options Item Description Cost Will it Work? Comments Prevention Do not move firewood more than 1/2 mile Low No ...
<ul><li>Homeowner </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ash trees on your property </li></ul><ul><li>Assess condition  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Jodi Ellis  </li></ul><ul><li>Exotic Insect Education Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Purdue Entomology </li></ul><u...
Pesticide Applications <ul><li>Glyphosate (Roundup) Applied 4 ounces of concentrate as of May 15, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Organic Lawn-Care:  Compost Tea Recipe <ul><li>Make some compost </li></ul><ul><li>Scoop a few pounds of compost into a so...
Source: Hamilton County Master Gardeners Herbivore Repellants Recipes  (Deer, Rabbits, Squirrels, Chipmunks) Kim’s  Milk a...
Schedule Jan 2010 June 2010 Master Gardener Training <ul><li>HCSWCD Wildlife Seminar </li></ul><ul><li>HCSWCD Site Survey ...
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Wildlife and Watershed Friendly Residential Landscape

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This briefing documents the transition of my property into a demonstration site for ecologically friendly landscape practices.

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Wildlife and Watershed Friendly Residential Landscape

  1. 1. Wildlife and Watershed Friendly Residential Landscape for Central Indiana Demonstration Property Prepared for and with Guidance by Hamilton County Soil and Water Conservation District Prepared by Matthew Newell http://wildlifeandwatershedfriendly.weebly.com/ May 29, 2010 DRAFT 4
  2. 2. Thanks <ul><li>Lead Advisor: Hamilton County Soil and Water Conservation District, Shaena Reinhart </li></ul><ul><li>Advisors </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton County Urban Conservation Association, Dan McCord </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana Museum of Art Nursery, Sue Nord </li></ul><ul><li>Myrene’s Garden, Myrene Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Purdue Dept of Entomology, Dr. Jodi Ellis </li></ul><ul><li>Purdue Master Gardener Program, Steve Mayer </li></ul><ul><li>The Wild Ones, Janet and Mimi </li></ul><ul><li>Books and Web Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Gaia’s Garden, An Guide to Home-Scale to Permaculture, by Toby Hemenway </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Soils Project </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana Department of Natural Resources Tree Program </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society (INPAWS) </li></ul><ul><li>National Wildlife Federation Certified Backyard Wildlife Program </li></ul><ul><li>Safelawns .org </li></ul><ul><li>SoilFoodWeb.com </li></ul><ul><li>The Vegetable Gardener’s Bible, by Edward Smith </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why? <ul><li>Wildlife Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife and wildlife habitat provide aesthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational, and scientific value to a Nation and its people* </li></ul><ul><li>Makes home more attractive and enjoyable </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Improves water quality of our rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and oceans+ </li></ul><ul><li>*This language taken from the preamble of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>+Indiana is a top 8 contributor of nutrients that feed the “dead zone” algae bloom in the Gulf of Mexico. (Source: USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Demonstration Property Overview <ul><li>Single Family Residence, Subdivision in Fishers, Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>1.75 acre lot </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly Wooded, 90% Green Ash Trees* </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly Grass </li></ul><ul><li>No in-ground irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Characteristics </li></ul>* Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) detected approximately 5 miles from property. Once an ash tree is infested with EAB, it will die in 1 to 3 years. Property Description About Physical Clay Loam Clay loam soils hold water and are high in nutrients. Chemical 7.5 pH A little high (alkaline) for most plants. Biological 4.1% Organic Matter Additional organic matter would benefit plants and neutralize soil pH.
  5. 5. The Site North Ash Trees Objective House
  6. 6. Objective About Family Friendly Need multiple outdoor options for an active family Watershed Friendly Minimize water and nutrient runoff Wildlife Friendly Attract and coexist with wildlife Visually Appealing Curb appeal and ample visual interest throughout property Mostly Native Species Wildlife benefit, ease of maintenance, habitat restoration Low Maintenance Minimize need for labor and materials (fertilizers, mulch, water, pesticides, herbicides, equipment) Mostly Organic Minimize use of synthetic chemicals Ash Tree Mitigation Minimize cost of ash removal and replacement, preserve a wooded look
  7. 7. Projects vs. Objectives *Soil animals
  8. 8. Rain Gardens RG RG A rain garden is a depression in your property designed to catch rainwater. Planted with native species, rain gardens absorb water and remove nutrients that damage our watershed. Properly built rain gardens drain in 24-48 hours. They are not ponds or swamps and do not attract mosquitoes. <ul><li>The Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Very shady </li></ul><ul><li>Three downspouts drain into each rain garden </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rain Garden Site #1
  10. 10. Rain Gardens Process Photos
  11. 11. Rain Garden Site #2
  12. 12. Rain Garden 2 final
  13. 13. Rain Gardens: Species List * These plants should not be in the rain garden bowl. Name Type Origin Bloom Height Exposure Moisture Palm Sedge Carex muskingumensis Sedge Native n/a 1’ Semi-shade Wet Burr Sedge Carex grayi Sedge Native May seedpod 1’ Semi-shade Wet Cardinal Flower Lobelia cardinalis Flower Native Aug-Sept 2 ’- 3’ Semi-shade Wet Blue Flag Iris Iris virginica shrevei Flower Native Blue 2 ’- 3’ Semi-shade Wet Spicebush Lindera benzoin Shrub Native Green/ Yellow 6’ - 12’ Semi-shade Wet Bottlebrush Buckeye Aesculus parviflora Shrub Semi-Native Tubular White 6’ - 12’ Semi-shade Well drained* Fothergilla Fotherfilla gardenii Shrub Semi-Native White Spikes 3’ Semi-shade Well drained* Low Grow Sumac Rhus aromatica Shrub Cultivar Yellow flwr, Red berries 1’ - 2’ Semi-shade Well drained*
  14. 14. Native Trees & Shrubs Native T & S Low maintenance, hardy, benefit wildlife <ul><li>Native Trees from Department of Natural Resources “Wildlife Pack” </li></ul><ul><li>Ash Tree Mitigation: PLANT SMALL NOW </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce material, transport, and labor costs </li></ul><ul><li>Do not wait until infestation </li></ul>Native T & S
  15. 15. Native Trees and Shrubs DNR Seedlings
  16. 16. Trees and shrubs Process Photos
  17. 17. Native Trees: Species List Name Mature Light Soil About Ht Yrs Washington Hawthorne Crataegus phaenopyrum 15’-30’ 5 Full sun Well drained Excellent cover and winter food for wildlife/thorns protect nests Flowering Crabapple 15’ - 40’ 5 Full sun Well drained Large crop of small fruit that persists into winter providing food and cover for wildlife Persimmon Diospyros virginiana 30’ - 70’ 30 Full sun Well drained / Wet Can be used for human consumption White Pine Pinus strobus 50’ - 100’ 40 Full sun Well drained Fast growing windbreaks, wildlife food and cover Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata 50’ - 100’ 50 Full sun/ Part shade Well drained / Wet Nesting site for bats (they hang between the trunk and shaggy bark) Black Cherry Prunus serotina 50’ - 100’ 50 Full sun Well drained Host plant for many types of Lepidoptera (butterflies/moths)
  18. 18. Native Shrubs: Species List Name Mature Light Soil About Ht. Yrs Silky Dogwood Cornus amomum 5’- 10’ 3 Partial shade Well drained / Wet Wildlife cover and summer food, will grow at waters edge. Hazlenut Corylus americana 5’ - 10’ 3 Full sun Well drained Wildlife food and cover Gray Dogwood Cornus racemosa 5’- 10’ 15 Full sun Well drained Clusters of white flowers in spring and white fruit in fall. Important food and cover for wildlife. Black Chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa 5’ - 13’ 3 Full sun Dry to Moist Wildlife food and cover Common Chokeberry Prunus virginiana 15’ - 20’ 5 Full sun / Partial shade Moist Wildlife food and cover American Plum Prunus americana 15’ - 30’ 10 Full sun Well drained / Moist Abundant white flowers in spring and small edible plums in summer. Pawpaw Asimina triloba 10’ - 30’ 5 Full sun / Partial shade Well drained / Moist Valuable wildlife food
  19. 19. Native Vines, Flowers & Groundcovers: Species List Name Mature Light Soil About Ht. Yrs Wild Ginger Asarum canadense 5” 1 Shady Moist Heart shaped glossy lustrous leaves that cover the ground.
  20. 20. Prairie Native prairies are a valuable food source for beneficial birds and insects. <ul><li>The Site </li></ul><ul><li>Full sun </li></ul><ul><li>No irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Secret garden inside prairie for the kids </li></ul><ul><li>Near vegetable garden for biological pest control </li></ul><ul><li>Bed prep: newspaper and compost </li></ul>Prairie
  21. 21. Prairie
  22. 22. Trees and shrubs Process Photos
  23. 23. Prairie: Species List Name Type Origin Bloom Height Exposure Moisture Little Bluestem Schizachrium scoparium Grass Native n/a 2’-3’ Full sun Drained Prairie Dropseed Sporobolus heterolepis Grass Native n/a 1’ -2’ Full sun Drained Purple Coneflower Echinacea purpurea Flower Native Purple 2’-3’ Full sun Drained Sweet Black Eyed Susan Rudbeckia subtomentosa Flower Native Yellow 1’-3’ Full sun Drained Showy Goldenrod Solidago speciosa Flower Native Yellow 1’-3’ Full sun Drained Rattlesnake Master Eryngium yuccifolium Grass Native White/ Green Balls 2’ - 5’ Full sun Drained
  24. 24. Garden <ul><li>The Site </li></ul><ul><li>Located on site of invasive Asian Honeysuckle Bush (removed March 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Beds: decomposed leaves newspaper compost </li></ul><ul><li>Paths: </li></ul><ul><li>cardboard </li></ul><ul><li>straw </li></ul>Vegetable Garden
  25. 25. Vegetable Garden
  26. 26. Trees and shrubs Process Photos
  27. 27. Compost Builds soil, reduces waste, and minimizes need for additional soil amendments <ul><li>Recycled shipping pallets </li></ul><ul><li>Rain Barrel for compost tea </li></ul>Compost Station
  28. 28. Compost Station
  29. 29. Organic lawncare does not harm the soil animals that improve our soil. Less fertilizer runoff means less impact to our watershed.* <ul><li>Everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Compost Tea Monthly Application </li></ul><ul><li>Front </li></ul><ul><li>Fall: Scotts Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Spring: Corn Gluten </li></ul><ul><li>High Traffic / High Visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Aeration </li></ul><ul><li>Compost top dressing </li></ul>Organic Lawn-Care *EPA estimates as little of 35% of lawn fertilizer is used by the lawn. The rest vaporizes or leaches into the watershed.
  30. 30. Organic Lawn-care Organic Lawn-Care: Did it Work?
  31. 31. Don’t expect a monoculture Expect worms and birds and moles <ul><li>Corn Gluten </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable fertilizer & pre-emergent </li></ul><ul><li>Does not suppress established perennial weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Costs more per square foot to apply than synthetics but applied less often </li></ul><ul><li>Compost Tea </li></ul><ul><li>Seems like it works. Too early to tell. </li></ul><ul><li>Compost Top Dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Works great. Labor intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Herbicides After initial dandelion outbreak, spot sprayed with the selective herbicide 2,4-D (Weed Be Gone) </li></ul><ul><li>Dandelions can be a sign of soil compaction and high pH. </li></ul>Organic Lawn-Care Cant stop dandelions!
  32. 32. Backup Materials Insert final photos Done: May 14, 2010 1. Emerald Ash Borer Introduction 2. Compost Tea Recipe 3. Animal Repellant Recipes 4. Pesticide Applications 5. Schedule
  33. 33. Emerald Ash Borer Infestation -Likely 100% Die Off of all untreated Ash Trees in Hamilton and Marion County (but when?) -1 in 6 of all trees in Indiana are ash trees Balcha Wasp: non-native predator of Emerald Ash Borer
  34. 34. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Exotic beetle discovered in Michigan in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>North American ash trees are defenseless </li></ul><ul><li>Tens of millions of trees already dead </li></ul><ul><li>USDA quarantines in Michigan, Illinois, Indiana , Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, New York, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Quebec, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT MOVE FIREWOOD! </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Community Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Property values </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of mature tree canopy </li></ul><ul><li>Homeowner mitigation costs </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Areas: wooded lots, unsold lots, wooded common areas, lots adjacent to parkland </li></ul><ul><li>Ash is not good standing dead. Dries out quickly, gets brittle, limbs fall, high potential for property damage. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Mitigation Options Item Description Cost Will it Work? Comments Prevention Do not move firewood more than 1/2 mile Low No Its the law! Will slow, but not stop infestation Biological Release of natural predators (Bacha wasp) in ash forests. Huge Maybe Works in small areas Chemical 3 year Injection: Emaectin benzoate 1 year soil drench: Imidacloprid $20-$80 per tree per year Yes Requires preventative and then continuous treatment Imidacloprid may not be good for bees Removal Selectively remove weaker specimens Varies No Healthy ash trees are equally susceptible Replacement Replant areas with a diverse set of pest and disease resistant trees Low (seedling) High (mature) Yes Avoid monocultures
  37. 37. <ul><li>Homeowner </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ash trees on your property </li></ul><ul><li>Assess condition </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if they are worth saving (chemical) </li></ul><ul><li>Budget for treatment, removal and replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversify your trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replant smaller trees near ash as understory plantings. They will look good by the time your ash is dead and needs removal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homeowner’s Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess: Are there any ash in common areas? Unbuilt lots? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounding Area Awareness & Mitigation: Engage city & adjacent subdivisions & homes for action </li></ul></ul>Recommendations
  38. 38. <ul><li>Jodi Ellis </li></ul><ul><li>Exotic Insect Education Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Purdue Entomology </li></ul><ul><li>765 494 0822 </li></ul><ul><li>Pam Louks </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Forestry Division </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana Department of Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>317 591 1170 </li></ul><ul><li>Jodi Dickey </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers Senior Planner </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers City Hall </li></ul><ul><li>595 3429 [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Pruitt </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers Parks Director </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Indianapolis Beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>264 7555 </li></ul>References <ul><li>General Information http://www.emeraldashborer.info/ </li></ul><ul><li>Purdue University www.entm.purdue.edu/eab </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana State Nurseries Plant Bundles (50 to 100) $35.00 www.in.gov/dnr/forestry/3620.htm </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Options </li></ul><ul><li>If smaller than 40” diameter, soil drench ($20/tree/year) If greater than 40” diameter, injection ($80/tree/year) products are: tree-age (Emaectin Benzoate)(3 year effective), Imidacloprid (1 year soil drench) </li></ul><ul><li>Imidacloprid Effects on Bee Population </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  39. 39. Pesticide Applications <ul><li>Glyphosate (Roundup) Applied 4 ounces of concentrate as of May 15, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Poison Ivy </li></ul><ul><li>Some bed preparation </li></ul><ul><li>2,4-D (Weed be Gone) Applied 3 ounces of concentrate as of May 15, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Dandelions </li></ul>
  40. 40. Organic Lawn-Care: Compost Tea Recipe <ul><li>Make some compost </li></ul><ul><li>Scoop a few pounds of compost into a sock </li></ul><ul><li>Add into a full rain barrel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compost sock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish Emulsion Fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seaweed Fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aerate with an aquarium bubbler for 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute onto lawn, shrubs, and vegetables (via utility pump & hose) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat every month of the growing season </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Harvard Soils Project </li></ul>
  41. 41. Source: Hamilton County Master Gardeners Herbivore Repellants Recipes (Deer, Rabbits, Squirrels, Chipmunks) Kim’s Milk and Egg Spray 1 cup water 1 cup milk 2 eggs 2 tps dish soap Liquefy in the blender for a few minutes Nancy’s Granular Fertilizer Spread Mix 40 lbs of MilOragnite with 8 oz garlic powder Broadcast on ground under plants. Repeat every 3 to 4 weeks Jeanette’s Hot Sauce Mix 1 part Hot Sauce 1 part Wiltproof 10 parts water Mix and spray Granular Mix for Omnivores (Raccoons, Possums, Groundhogs, Skunks) Ground Cayenne – 90,000 Heat Units and Powdered Garlic. Mix together and sprinkle on ground around plants as a deterrent. Do not sprinkle directly on plants. Animal Repellant Applied Kim’s to vegetable garden 5/17/10
  42. 42. Schedule Jan 2010 June 2010 Master Gardener Training <ul><li>HCSWCD Wildlife Seminar </li></ul><ul><li>HCSWCD Site Survey </li></ul><ul><li>DNR Ash Tree Evaluation </li></ul>Planning Execution Maintenance <ul><li>Design Consultant: Myrene Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Wildflower Consultant: Dan McCord </li></ul><ul><li>Native Plant Consultant: Wild Ones </li></ul>

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