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  1. 1. Elements of Permaculture <ul><li>Plants & People </li></ul>Ben Kessler & Meredith Hartwell Laughing Crow Permaculture
  2. 2. Analysis of Elements <ul><li>List the Yields , Needs , and intrinsic characteristics of each </li></ul><ul><li>Element . </li></ul><ul><li>Lists are made to try to supply (by some other Element in </li></ul><ul><li>the system) the Needs of any particular Element . </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment on paper, connecting and combining Elements </li></ul><ul><li>to achieve no Pollution and minimize Work . </li></ul><ul><li>Close the Loops! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Guilds <ul><li>A Guild is made up of a close association of species clustered around a central element, usually a plant or an animal. This assembly acts in relation to the element to assist its health, aid in management, boost yields, or buffer adverse environmental effects. </li></ul>Corn, Beans, Squash & Mullet Mullet remains dug into soil at planting to boost nutrients. Corn provides structural support for the Bean vines. Beans provide Nitrogen for the Corn and Squash. Squash acts as a living mulch for the Corn and Beans. Food waste fed to Mullet.
  4. 4. Ecological Equivalents <ul><li>Ecological Equivalents are organisms that fit similar niches in an ecosystem, or fulfill similar Functions in a design. Often the result of convergent evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Dusky Hopping Mouse Kangaroo Rat Small Five-Toed Jerboa </li></ul><ul><li>Notomys fuscus Dipodomys sp. Allacteaga elater </li></ul><ul><li>Australia North America Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Small, Seed-Eating, Hopping, Burrowing, Desert-Dwelling Mammals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Environmental Equivalents <ul><li>Bison </li></ul><ul><li>Prairie Chicken </li></ul><ul><li>Tallgrass Prairie </li></ul>Water Buffalo Cattle Egret Savanna Cow Chicken Pasture
  6. 6. Needs & Yields <ul><li>Tomato / Tomatl Solanum lycopersicum </li></ul><ul><li> Needs Yields </li></ul>Full Sunlight, Water, NPK, Micronutrients, Warm Soil, Protection from Herbivores, Mycorrhizal Partners, Slightly Acidic Soil pH, Well-drained Soil, Structural Support, Love Delicious Fruit, Spatial Demarcation, Mulch, Dense Verdant Foliage, Pest Protection for Brassicas and Gooseberries, Companionship for Basil and Nettles, Compost
  7. 7. Needs & Yields: The Permaculture Chicken What does each element need in order to live or be maintained? What products or services does it naturally provide?
  8. 8. Needs, in a High Altitude Garden <ul><li>Ideally, link garden elements together so that the needs of one element can be met by the outputs of another. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short growing season (90-110 days) & short day length, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day/night temperature fluctuations , </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low soil organic matter & alkaline pH, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate selection of vegetable and fruit varieties. </li></ul></ul></ul>What’s different at 7,000 feet?
  9. 9. High Altitude Garden Needs: Temperature Regulation Strategies <ul><li>Garden bed placement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Evaluate sun/shade/wind sectors and create warmer or cooler microclimates depending on vegetable type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures & thermal mass: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Raised beds & black pots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Frost cloth & plastic “mulch” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Cold frames & hoop houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Greenhouses </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Garden Inputs <ul><li>Soil Amendments to raise pH, organic content & nutrient values: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Compost, leaves, animal manures, organic fertilizers, earth worm castings, beneficial soil mycorrhizae, nitrogen fixing plants (green ‘manures’), straw or hay mulches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Capture on landscape, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drip systems, water in evening </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Yields: Food! <ul><li>General guidelines for </li></ul><ul><li>growing high elevation crops: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Emphasize cool season veggies in your garden: Cole/cruciferous crops, greens of all kinds (from arugula to spinach to lettuces), root crops, certain grains (quinoa, millet, amaranth, spring wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Select short-season & short day varieties: less than 90 days to fruition is ideal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Start warm-season crops inside, esp. nightshades (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, chilis) & plant them in a WARM microclimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Include mid-story native berry shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Plant late-blooming fruits (Best: apple trees with 800-1000 ‘chill hours’ before blooming; cherries, plums, grapes, & certain varieties of apricots & peaches) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ Companion plant fruits, veggies, flowers & trees wisely for beneficial relationships </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Other Yields: <ul><li>~ Compost </li></ul><ul><li>~ Improved soil structure </li></ul><ul><li>~ Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>~ Sense and/or knowledge of place </li></ul><ul><li>~ Personal experience & knowledge of your garden </li></ul><ul><li>~ Seed </li></ul><ul><li>~ Localism: contributing to </li></ul><ul><li>bioregionalism by growing and </li></ul><ul><li>eating locally </li></ul><ul><li>~ (Perhaps) Increased community </li></ul><ul><li>involvement involving food </li></ul>Photo by Jennifer Temkin Photo by Meredith Hartwell
  13. 13. Groundcover <ul><li>Living Mulch, Walking Surface </li></ul>Pussytoes Antennaria parviflora Helianthus Helianthus sp. Wild Sage Artemisia ludoviciana Photos courtesy of Jennifer Temkin
  14. 14. Dynamic Accumulators <ul><li>Soil Aeration, Nutrient Accumulation, Shade Sequestration of Environmental Toxins </li></ul>Comfrey Symphytum officinale Stinging Nettle Urtica dioica Kale Brassica oleraacea
  15. 15. Nitrogen Fixers <ul><li>Nitrogen Fixation </li></ul>Alder Aldus sp. Clover Trifolium sp. Lupines Lupinus sp. Root Nodules on Soybean ( Glycine max ) roots
  16. 16. Insectaries <ul><li>Pollinator Attraction, Aesthetic Prettification </li></ul>Calendula Calendula sp. Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Borage Borago sp. Photo by Jennifer Temkin
  17. 17. Cover Crops <ul><li>Soil Building, Animal Forage, Fallow Cover </li></ul>Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Especially for the Southwest: Annual Rye Oats Field Peas Hairy Vetch Winter Wheat Winter Rye Wildflower Mix Western Wheat Sideoats Grama Smooth Brome Buffalo Grass Indian Rice Grass Ephram Crested Wheat Sanfoin Clovers Borage Blue Grama Bouteloua gracilis
  18. 18. Food Tea/ Medicine/ Insectary Food/Medicine/ Insectary courtesy of Connor Stedman Ground Cover/ Nitrogen Fixer Polyculture Design
  19. 19. Food/ Aromatic Pest Confuser Ground Cover/ Medicine/ Fertilizer/ Insectary/ Beneficial Habitat Food courtesy of Connor Stedman Food/Insectary Food/ Medicine/ Insectary Polyculture Design
  20. 20. SSLUG & Bonito St. Gardens
  21. 21. SSLUG 2010
  22. 22. CSA Garden
  23. 23. Composting at SSLUG Photos courtesy of Ian Dixon-McDonald
  24. 24. Accelerate Succession Stack functions in time and space To enable a cultivated system to evolve toward a long-term stable state, we can construct a system, carefully planning the succession of plants and animals so that we can receive short, medium, and long-term benefits. “ Place is a verb.” – Jeanette Armstrong Introduction to Permaculture (2004) Bill Mollison & Reny Mia Slay
  25. 25. <ul><li>What are the differences between invasive species and changing ecosystems? </li></ul>Rampant & Invasive Species “ Is it better to build systems that include exotics or should reforestation aim only to replace what has been taken away? Is a rampant exotic a weed, or nature’s most effective first aid treatment?” – Permaculture International Journal Scotch Broom ( Cytisus scoparius ) on a CA hillside
  26. 26. <ul><li>“ All rampant or weedy and invasive plants are gonna be everywhere eventually-why not just speed things up?” – Bill Mollison </li></ul>Local Rampants Salt Cedar Tamarix sp. Benefits: Willow Flycatcher habitat, basketry material, erosion control, butterfly food Detriments: Soil salinization, willow & cottonwood exclusion, flooding, water table draining Russian Olive Eleagnus angustifolia Benefits: Bird habitat & food, erosion control, N fixation, windbreak, mulch, shade Detriments: Willow & cottonwood exclusion, meadow encroachment
  27. 27. Appendices
  28. 28. Plants in the Landscape Forest Garden Hedgerow Silvopasture Coppice & Standard Alley Cropping
  29. 29. Plants in the Landscape Companion Planting Keyhole Garden Intercropping Herb Spiral
  30. 30. Integrated Pest Management <ul><li>“ Mulch your cat. It’s eating all the frogs and lizards that control insects.” – Bill Mollison </li></ul>“ [Industrial pest management] is like pokin’ a gopher with a rope- you can’t do that!” – Gordon Tooley Integrated Pest Management is a crop management approach designed to address ecological dilemmas in agriculture. 1. Acceptable pest levels 2. Preventative cultural practices 3. Monitoring 4. Mechanical controls 5. Biological controls 6. Chemical controls USDA IPM Principles: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/ipm.htm
  31. 31. Convergent Evolution <ul><li>Ecological Equivalents are organisms that fit similar niches in an ecosystem, or fulfill similar Functions in a design. Often the result of convergent evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser Hedghog Tenrec European Hedgehog Short Beaked Echidna </li></ul><ul><li>Echinops telfairi Erinaceus europaeus Tachyglossus aculeatus </li></ul><ul><li>Adorable, inedible, insectivorous, little mammals </li></ul>
  32. 32. Resources <ul><li>High Altitude Gardening websites: http://gardening.coloradohighaltitude.com/VegetableGardening/index.php </li></ul><ul><li>http://flagstafflandscape.com/?p=520 </li></ul><ul><li>Coconino County Master Gardener Association : http://coconinomgassociation.blogspot.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Flagstaff Planting Guide , by Julie Lancaster: http://www.facebook.com/pages/for-anyone-who-grows-anything-in-Flagstaff-AZ/Flagstaff-Planting-Guide-Gardening-Community/332493936810?filter=3 </li></ul><ul><li>Gaia’s Garden , by Toby Hemenway </li></ul><ul><li>Four-Season Harvest , by Eliot Coleman </li></ul><ul><li>The Winter Harvest Handbook , by Eliot Coleman </li></ul><ul><li>The New Organic Grower , by Eliot Coleman </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Food in the Southwest Mountains , by Lisa Rayner </li></ul><ul><li>J. Howard Garrett’s Organic Manual , 2 nd Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Small Food Gardens , by Louise Riotte </li></ul><ul><li>Carrots Love Tomatoes , by Louise Riotte </li></ul><ul><li>Start with the Soil , by Grace Gershuny </li></ul><ul><li>A People’s Ecology , by Gregory Cajete </li></ul>
  33. 33. Thanks to <ul><li>The Internet </li></ul><ul><li>for words and pictures </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Joanna Hale, Jennifer Temkin, DeJa Walker & Ian Dixon-McDonald for photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Information </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>laughingcrowpermaculture.wordpress.com </li></ul>