FYN Principle #1 - Right Plant, Right Place


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FYN Principle #1:
Right Plant, Right Place

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program

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FYN Principle #1 - Right Plant, Right Place

  1. 1. Right Plant, Right Place Landscape Design Principles Planning Site Analysis Plant Selection Trees Palms Shrubs Lawns Turf Alternatives Natives Author: Rebecca McNair
  2. 2. Key to Success <ul><li>Proper planning and plant selection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can avoid problems later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can save energy, effort, water, money, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes the landscape more enjoyable </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Plan First, Plant Once <ul><li>This is a process, not a one-time event! </li></ul><ul><li>Have a plan! </li></ul><ul><li>Know the plants and what they require to thrive </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize regional gardening books and magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with your UF County Extension Office </li></ul><ul><li>Ask qualified nursery professionals for advice </li></ul>
  4. 4. How Do You Currently Use Your Property? <ul><li>Family Activities? </li></ul><ul><li>Pets? </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor entertainment? </li></ul><ul><li>Low-maintenance? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you like wildlife? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a view you want to hide or enhance? </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are the site characteristics? <ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sand, silt, clay, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sun or shade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet or dry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures and obstructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utility lines (overhead and underground) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sidewalks / driveways </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Know Your Plants <ul><li>What is the mature size of the plant? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it grow well in sun or shade? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it tolerate flooded conditions? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it salt tolerant? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it susceptible to pests which may be difficult to control? </li></ul>Helianthus debilis Beach Daisy
  7. 7. Selecting Plants <ul><li>Be familiar with botanical names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binomial nomenclature - a species name has 2 parts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus and specific epithet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buy healthy plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for new growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots are white and fibrous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid pot bound plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid diseased or insect infested plants </li></ul></ul>Jerusalem Thorn Parkinsonia aculeata <ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul></ul>Specific epithet
  8. 8. Engage The Senses <ul><li>Scent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragrant flowers, aromatic plants or mulch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be mindful of allergens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running water, wind chimes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuzzy, waxy, smooth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edible fruits, herbs </li></ul></ul>The sound of running water attracts wildlife.
  9. 9. Trees in the Landscape <ul><li>Provide shade </li></ul><ul><li>Increase property values </li></ul><ul><li>Add color </li></ul><ul><li>Add texture </li></ul><ul><li>Attract wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a framework for the rest of the landscape </li></ul>Quercus virginiana Live Oak
  10. 10. Factors to Consider <ul><li>Most trees DO NOT have taproots </li></ul><ul><li>Tree roots grow OUT, not down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80 - 90% of a tree root system is found in the upper 18 - 24 inches of the soil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots of trees and shrubs grow to about 3 times the branch spread. </li></ul></ul>Incorrect Correct
  11. 11. Trees <ul><ul><li>Trees growing in commercial settings live an average of 13 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees in residential areas average 37 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees in rural, undisturbed sites average 150 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some species live longer than others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid growth results in weaker wood and shorter lifespan </li></ul></ul>Quercus nigra The Water Oak is a relatively short-lived tree.
  12. 12. Urban Influences <ul><li>Compacted soils </li></ul><ul><li>Over-pruning </li></ul><ul><li>Limited space for roots </li></ul><ul><li>Improper staking </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrian and vehicle abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Improper planting </li></ul><ul><li>Improper fertilization </li></ul>
  13. 13. Construction Issues <ul><li>Changing the soil grade by as little as 6 inches can seriously damage a tree </li></ul><ul><li>When building, remove a tree that cannot be adequately protected and plant several younger, healthy trees </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt, consult an arborist! </li></ul>
  14. 14. More Factors to Consider <ul><li>Trees damaged by construction may not initially show symptoms and may decline slowly for many years </li></ul><ul><li>Topping a tree can create a dangerous situation </li></ul><ul><li>Trees which are subjected to stress are more susceptible to insects and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Tree paints do not prevent insects or diseases </li></ul>
  15. 15. Selecting the Right Place For a Tree <ul><li>Know the mature size </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate space </li></ul><ul><li>Trees should be planted at least 15 ft from the foundation of a home! </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid overhead power lines </li></ul>Quercus laurifolia Laurel Oak
  16. 16. Tree Planting Tips <ul><li>Dig the plant hole the same depth as the root ball and 2 to 3 times wider </li></ul><ul><li>Do not amend the backfill soil </li></ul><ul><li>Apply 3 to 4 inches of mulch around the tree to retain moisture, but </li></ul><ul><li>avoid contact with the </li></ul><ul><li>stem or trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Water regularly </li></ul><ul><li>until established </li></ul>
  17. 17. Transplanting <ul><li>Container-grown or “hardened-off” balled and burlapped trees can be planted any time of year </li></ul><ul><li>Research indicates that establishment time can increase 1-2 months/ inch of trunk diameter </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fertilizing New Trees <ul><li>Avoid fertilizing a tree until it is established </li></ul><ul><li>Proper irrigation is important </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilize 4-6 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>after planting </li></ul>Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip Poplar
  19. 19. Palms Are Different! <ul><li>Palms have only ONE terminal growing point </li></ul><ul><li>Palms do not increase in diameter as they mature </li></ul><ul><li>Palm roots grow longer but do not increase in diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Many palms are harvested from the wild </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant palms in spring and summer </li></ul>Acoelorraphe wrightii Paurotis Palm
  20. 20. Shrubs <ul><li>Shrubs are woody plants usually with multiple trunks and branches arising from near the roots </li></ul><ul><li>They provide structure, texture and color to a landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Many shrubs can be pruned to form hedges and topiary figures </li></ul>Serenoa repens Saw Palmetto
  21. 21. Keep It Simple <ul><li>Don’t plant shrubs too close together. Space them according to how far they will spread. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant in large groups for continuity and increased visual impact </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t place too many different species in the same area </li></ul>Strelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise has a clumping habit; in time, it will fill an area.
  22. 22. Planting Shrubs <ul><li>Plant in beds </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate organic matter in the bed </li></ul><ul><li>Group according to water and maintenance needs </li></ul><ul><li>Apply 3 to 4 inches of mulch, but do not allow mulch to rest against the plant stems </li></ul>
  23. 23. Major Turfgrass Species in Florida <ul><ul><li>St. Augustinegrass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most popular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bahiagrass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very drought tolerant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seashore paspalum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very salt tolerant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bermudagrass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used on golf courses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centipedegrass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common in the Panhandle </li></ul></ul></ul>Bahiagrass Bermudagrass St. Augustinegrass
  24. 24. St. Augustinegrass- Varieties <ul><li>Floratam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor shade and cold -tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse texture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant to chinch bugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reddish colored stolons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheds foliage coming out of dormancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent heat tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best mowed at 3 - 4 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delmar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved shade- tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dwarf variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good cold- tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptible to chinch bugs and sod webworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow growth means it takes longer to establish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mow at 2.5 - 4 inches </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. A Shady Spot Even the shade tolerant varieties will do well only up to about 50% shade.
  26. 26. St. Augustinegrass Varieties for Semi-Shade <ul><li>Bitterblue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved cold- and shade-tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finer, denser texture than Floratam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptible to chinch bugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darker green than other varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mow at 3 - 4 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Seville </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does well in partial shade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-dwarf type, mow at 2 - 3 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptible to chinch bugs (more in sun than in shade) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More prone to thatch formation than other varieties </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Drought Tolerant Varieties <ul><li>Seashore paspalum </li></ul><ul><li>‘ SeaIsle 1’ </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent salt and drought tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerates flooding and some shade </li></ul><ul><li>Fine textured, dense, dark green growth </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and pest resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate thatch </li></ul><ul><li>Mow at 1 – 2 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Bahiagrass </li></ul><ul><li>Argentine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good cold and drought tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor salt and shade tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse textured, dense growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dormant in winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wear tolerant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mow at 3 - 4 inches </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Turf areas should be functional and easy to maintain! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Alternatives To Turf <ul><li>Landscaping beds require less effort and cost less to maintain than turf </li></ul><ul><li>Consider low-maintenance ground covers, mulched landscape beds, and pathways </li></ul>
  30. 30. Native Plants <ul><li>Native Plants are adapted to Florida’s environment </li></ul><ul><li>Many non-native species are also appropriate for a “Florida-Friendly Landscape” </li></ul><ul><li>Visit garden stores and ask </li></ul><ul><li>about low maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>and native plants </li></ul><ul><li>Association of Florida Native Nurseries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.afnn.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for a specific plant and locate the native plant nurseries that sell it! </li></ul></ul>www.floridata.com Zamia floridana Coontie
  31. 31. A Few Natives Rhapidophyllum hystrix Needle Palm Passiflora edulis Passion Vine Calicarpa americana Beautyberry www.floridata.com Erythrina herbacea Cherokee Bean
  32. 32. Environmentally Friendly Landscaping <ul><li>Your yard is an integral part of the protection and preservation of Florida’s environment. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The collective decisions we make about our landscapes have a profound impact on the quality of surface and ground water supplies, and ultimately, our quality of life.
  34. 34. With a little thought, our landscapes can combine beauty, function and environmental protection.
  35. 35. Further Reading http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu <ul><li>Circular 536 Basic Principles of Landscape Design </li></ul><ul><li>ENH-15 Budgeting For a Better Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>ENH-25 Native Florida Plants for Home Landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>SS-ENH-901 Botany Handbook for Florida, Revised Edition </li></ul>
  36. 36. Thanks for your attention! <ul><li>The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture Education and Communication Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Horticulture Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entomology and Nematology Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil and Water Sciences Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Center For Wetlands, UF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States Department of Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry </li></ul></ul>