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INVASIVES MANAGEMENT:
OUR PROPERTIES ANDTHE
BIG PICTURE
Jane Maloney
Land Steward
SudburyValleyTrustees
Native vs Invasive vs Non-native
Native Non-Native Invasive
Evolved in this region and currently
still in its natural range
Examples: creeping dewberry,
marsh marigold, blue wood aster,
poison ivy
From a different area but does not
spread freely and not negatively
impact wildlife habitat
Examples: English ivy, northern
catalpa
Note: some non-native species are
still fast spreading, but that alone
does not make them invasive
From a different area and able to
spread freely and negatively impact
wildlife habitat
Examples: glossy buckthorn, winged
euonymus, multiflora rose
It’s all relative!
Who decides what plants are invasive?
• Massachusetts Invasive Plant Advisory Group (MIPAG) reviews potential
species and recommends to the Commonwealth to prohibit
• Categorized as Invasive, Likely Invasive, or Potentially Invasive
• Can you answer YES to these questions?
• Non-native to Massachusetts area?
• Potential to disperse and establish in high numbers?
• Potential to disperse far away from introduction site?
• Can it replace natives?
• Is it already here or in states nearby or those with similar climate?
IfYES to all—it’s probably invasive!
Why do invasive plants do so well?
• Predator release—no native predators
• Filling a gap niche
• Creates ideal habitat for itself but not natives through soil chemistry changes
and shade/light changes
• Growing season starts earlier and ends later
• Dispersal methods- rhizomes, wind dispersal, seed number/viability
• Typically tolerant of a variety of conditions
Invasives and climate change
CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS
• Longer growing seasons
• More intense/longer periods of
drought
• Range expansion due to increased
temperatures
• More frequent intense storm
events
All of these things benefit
invasives and may hinder
natives!
https://www.invasivespeciescentre.ca/invasive-species/what-is-at-risk/climate-change/
Ecological Impacts
•Replace native plants with monocultures
• Loss of preferred or ideal food source (birds, pollinators)
• Changes in plant structure and height (perching, nesting, foraging)
• Light, water, or space availability changes
• Some alter soil chemistry & inhibit growth of natives & mycorrhizal networks
(allelopathic)
•Alters natural species succession
•Overall loss in species diversity
https://www.invasivespeciescentre.ca
Invasive species cause $423 billion in
damages and management globally each
year and this number is only increasing
We need your help!
The best place to start fighting
invasives is in your backyard!
The first step is…
IDENTIFICATION!
Asiatic Bittersweet
Celastrus orbiculatus
Vine (+60 ft tall), round leaves
with pointed tip, vines curl at
end and wrap around everything!
Introduction- Ornamental
Habitat- Forest edge, open
woodlands, disturbed areas,
fields. Shade tolerant!
Spreads- Seeds and root
suckering
Ecological Threat- Killing
vegetation through smothering
or girdling
Ideal treatment- Cut and paint,
root excavation
Plant these instead!
American bittersweet
Virginia rose
Japanese Knotweed
Fallopia japonica
Herbaceous perennial (+10ft tall),
heart shaped leaves, spotted
stems that are hollow. Small
white flowers.
Introduction- Ornamental,
erosion control, hedge
Habitat- Typically wet soils.
Shade, drought, salt, and heat
tolerant.
Spreads- Seeds and rhizomes
(can travel down stream)
Ecological Threat- dense thicket
shades out natives and clog
waterways/culverts
Ideal treatment- foliar spray or
injection, hand pulling if small,
three cut per season method.
Plant these instead!
Joe-pye-weed
Blue false indigo
New England aster
Multiflora Rose
Rosa multiflora
Shrub (+ 15 ft tall). Green stems that
turn reddish brown in fall/winter, small
white flowers, hairs near base of leaf
stalk, downward pointing thorns
Introduction- Ornamental and
livestock fencing
Habitat- Wide tolerance for soil,
moisture, and light conditions
Spreads- Seed and cane tips rooting
Ecological Threat- Dense thicket
shades out natives and impact bird
nesting
Ideal treatment- Combo
manual/mechanical removal and
chemical treatment
Plant these instead!
Virginia rose
Swamp rose
New England rose
Burning Bush
Euonymus alatus
Shrub (up to 20 ft tall), opposite,
dark green leaves, corky ridges
along green or brown stems.
Leaves turn bright red in fall.
Introduction- Ornamental
Habitat- Forests, coastal
scrublands, prairies
Spreads- Seeds and vegetative
reproduction
Ecological Threat- Dense
thickets replace natives
Ideal treatment- Hand pull
smaller plants. Repeated cuts or
cut and paint
Plant these instead!
Arrow wood viburnum
Oak-leaf hydrangea
Witch-alder
Garlic Mustard
Alliaria petiolata
Herbaceous Biennial (1-4 ft tall),
round/heart shaped leaves with
deep veining, purplish hairy
stems near the root in rosette
plant
Introduction- Food/medicinal
Habitat- Moist to dry forests,
roadsides, disturbed areas
Spreads- Seeds carried by wind,
water, people and wildlife
Ecological Threat- Changes soil
chemistry preventing native
wildflowers and tree seedling
growth. Toxic to butterfly larvae.
Ideal treatment- Hand pull or cut
back before it sets seed
Plant these instead!
White baneberry
Columbine
Glossy Buckthorn
Frangula alnus
Subshrub/Tree (20-25 ft tall),
ovate leaves with prominent
veining on underside. Gray-
brown bark with white lenticels,
red roots, dark berries in summer
Introduction- Ornamental,
Hedge
Habitat- Typically in wet soils,
sun or full shade. Can establish in
dry soils
Spreads- Seed
Ecological Threat- Dense thicket
displaces natives
Ideal treatment- Pull smaller
individual. Cut and paint larger
ones. Buckthorn bags 50%
effective
Plant these instead!
Common witch hazel
Black chokecherry
Arrow wood viburnum
Japanese Barberry
Berberis thunbergii
Shrub (3-6 ft tall), small, ovate
leaves that are green and turn red
in the fall. Brown stems with a
shard thorn at each leaf node.
Red dangling berries.
Introduction- Ornamental
Habitat- Sun to deep shade,
forest, wetlands, fields etc.
Spreads- Seeds, root creepers
and tip rooting branches
Ecological Threat- Displaces
natives, can raise soil pH,
promotes Lyme disease
Ideal treatment- Hand pulling,
repeated mowing/cutting, cut
stem herbicide treatment
Plant these instead!
Winterberry
Maple leaf viburnum
Tree of heaven
Ailanthus altissima
Tree (up to 80 ft tall), compound,
smooth leaves, with glandular
nodes. Brown/gray bark with
slight texture.
Introduction- Ornamental/shade
Habitat- Disturbed
environments, edge habitats
Spreads- Seeds, root suckers
Ecological Threat- Displaces
natives, host tree for spotted
lantern fly, allelopathic chemicals
released
Ideal treatment- Hand pulling,
repeated cutting, cut stem
herbicide treatment
Plant these instead!
Staghorn sumac
Pignut hickory
White ash
Amur corktree
Phellodendron amurense
Tree (35-50ft), ridged bark that is
soft and corky, compound leaves
that turn yellow in fall,
Introduction- Ornamental/street
tree
Habitat- Moist woodlands, shady
habitats, river floodplains
Spreads- Seeds (produces lots of
them)
Ecological Threat- Displaces
natives
Ideal treatment- Hand pulling,
repeated cutting, cut stem
herbicide treatment
Plant these instead!
White ash
Red oak
So you have invasives, now what?
Manual /Mechanical Removal
HerbicideTreatment
OtherTypes ofTreatments
Disposal
The land manager’s approach
• Identify species present
• Determine end goal- eradiation or maintain edge?
• Removal and disposal based on the plants and goal
• Choose natives to plant
• Develop a long term plan
HOWTO CHOOSE
YOUR NATIVES
For a no fuss, low maintenance, high impact garden
Determine your habitat conditions
• What is your soil like without your
assistance?
• Dry
• Wet (all the time or seasonally)
• Clay
• Sand
• How much direct sunlight do you
have?
• Full sun- direct light for 6+ hrs/day
• Partial sun/shade- direct light for 3-6
hrs/day
• Full shade- direct light for less than 3
hrs/day
What species are present now?
• Are you keeping all the plants in this area?
• Native or non-native (ornamental)
• Tree, shrub, perennial?
• Are there flowers? If so what is the color, bloom time, and structure?
What is your goal?
• Bird habitat (nesting and/or food
source)
• Rain garden to capture excess water
• Pollinator garden
• Hummingbirds
• Native Bees
• Butterflies
• Beneficial insects (ladybugs, green
lacewings etc.)
• Reduce lawn coverage
• Do you want this garden to serve this
function for several seasons?
Rules to the no fuss native garden
• Be lazy!
• Once established you should not need to water
• Plant close so there are no gaps aka space for weeds or need to mow
• No (or minimal) mulch
• Use native mints and common milkweed wisely (quick spreaders)
• No pesticides or fertilizers- native plants = native insects = native birds
• Cut plants back in spring after temps consistently over 50
• Rake leaves (leaf mulch) onto flower beds in fall
Where to find native plants?
• Plant list to support our pollinators
• https://www.svtweb.org/mca-pollinator-preservation-garden-toolkit
• Native PlantTrust
• Garden Plant Finder tool: https://plantfinder.nativeplanttrust.org/Plant-Search
• Russells Garden Center
• New EnglandWetland Plants
• VermontWildflower Farm
• Grow Native
• Bigelows
• Local Conservation District annual plant sales
To learn more about invasives go to www.cisma-suasco.org
Go Botany, Seek, Google Lens, iNaturalist—all good tools for plant ID
INVASIVE INSECTS
(and a couple non-insects)
Another threat to biodiversity…
Invasive insects/bugs/invertebrates
•Threaten native species, as well as agricultural
crops
•Are increasing in population and expanding
their ranges with climate change
•Can be much more mobile than some of our
invasive plants
Spotted Lantern Fly (Lycorma delicatula)
• Sap feeding insect, originally from Asia
• First found in US in 2014, in Boston in 2018. No active infestations!
• Attacks a variety of trees, main host tree is tree of heaven
• Heavily impacts grape production and potentially apple orchards
• Report to MDAR/MNRC if seen, treatment methods include traps,
tree removal, and chemical treatment
REPORT IT!
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae)
• Very small aphid-like insect
• Attacks eastern hemlocks (which make up a lot of our forests!)
• Feed on stored starches & cause tree death
• White woolly egg masses on underside of needles
• Treatment can include chemical injection ($$$) or biocontrol (also $$$)
Asian Long Horned Beetle
(Anoplophora glabripennis)
• 0.75”-1.5” long with very long antennae (up to 2x its body length)
• First found in MA in 2008—several active quarantines (110 sq miles)
• Larvae damage tree by eating sapwood
• Exit holes 3/8” or larger in diameter
• Host trees include maple, horse chestnut, birch, poplar, willow, elm
• Can be confused with whitespotted pine sawyer (native!)
Jumping Worms (Amynthas spp.)
• Dark gray/brown, 4-5 inches long
• Band is white-gray and wraps entirely around the body
• Thrash wildly when disturbed—usually at shallow depth
• Consume upper level of soil, depleting nutrients for native species
• Can be confused with nightcrawlers—band is usually a different
color and does not go all the way around
• Report to MDAR if seen in MA!
Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)
• Small, metallic green beetle—usually ½” long
• Adults present from mid-May to late June
• Distinct S-shaped tunnels beneath tree bark
• D-shaped exit holes that are 3-4mm in diameter
• Upper part of tree dies off, and lots of shoots come from affected
trunk
Beech Leaf Disease
• Relatively new disease affecting beech trees
• Symptoms: dark banding between veins of leaves, premature leaf
drop, thinning canopy, deformed or shriveled leaves
• Associated with presence of non-native nematode
• We still don’t know a lot about this one!
Resources for invasive pests…
• Reporting & fact sheets: Massachusetts Department of Agricultural
Resources
• https://massnrc.org/pests/pestreports.htm
• jennifer.forman-orth@state.ma.us –very responsive!
• Treatment and identification: UMass Landscape Extension
• https://ag.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets
• US Department of Agriculture
• https://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/us/massachusetts
QUESTIONS?

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Invasives Management-Big Picture-MCD.pptx

  • 1. INVASIVES MANAGEMENT: OUR PROPERTIES ANDTHE BIG PICTURE Jane Maloney Land Steward SudburyValleyTrustees
  • 2. Native vs Invasive vs Non-native Native Non-Native Invasive Evolved in this region and currently still in its natural range Examples: creeping dewberry, marsh marigold, blue wood aster, poison ivy From a different area but does not spread freely and not negatively impact wildlife habitat Examples: English ivy, northern catalpa Note: some non-native species are still fast spreading, but that alone does not make them invasive From a different area and able to spread freely and negatively impact wildlife habitat Examples: glossy buckthorn, winged euonymus, multiflora rose It’s all relative!
  • 3. Who decides what plants are invasive? • Massachusetts Invasive Plant Advisory Group (MIPAG) reviews potential species and recommends to the Commonwealth to prohibit • Categorized as Invasive, Likely Invasive, or Potentially Invasive • Can you answer YES to these questions? • Non-native to Massachusetts area? • Potential to disperse and establish in high numbers? • Potential to disperse far away from introduction site? • Can it replace natives? • Is it already here or in states nearby or those with similar climate? IfYES to all—it’s probably invasive!
  • 4. Why do invasive plants do so well? • Predator release—no native predators • Filling a gap niche • Creates ideal habitat for itself but not natives through soil chemistry changes and shade/light changes • Growing season starts earlier and ends later • Dispersal methods- rhizomes, wind dispersal, seed number/viability • Typically tolerant of a variety of conditions
  • 5. Invasives and climate change CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS • Longer growing seasons • More intense/longer periods of drought • Range expansion due to increased temperatures • More frequent intense storm events All of these things benefit invasives and may hinder natives! https://www.invasivespeciescentre.ca/invasive-species/what-is-at-risk/climate-change/
  • 6. Ecological Impacts •Replace native plants with monocultures • Loss of preferred or ideal food source (birds, pollinators) • Changes in plant structure and height (perching, nesting, foraging) • Light, water, or space availability changes • Some alter soil chemistry & inhibit growth of natives & mycorrhizal networks (allelopathic) •Alters natural species succession •Overall loss in species diversity https://www.invasivespeciescentre.ca
  • 7. Invasive species cause $423 billion in damages and management globally each year and this number is only increasing
  • 8. We need your help! The best place to start fighting invasives is in your backyard!
  • 9. The first step is… IDENTIFICATION!
  • 10. Asiatic Bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus Vine (+60 ft tall), round leaves with pointed tip, vines curl at end and wrap around everything! Introduction- Ornamental Habitat- Forest edge, open woodlands, disturbed areas, fields. Shade tolerant! Spreads- Seeds and root suckering Ecological Threat- Killing vegetation through smothering or girdling Ideal treatment- Cut and paint, root excavation Plant these instead! American bittersweet Virginia rose
  • 11. Japanese Knotweed Fallopia japonica Herbaceous perennial (+10ft tall), heart shaped leaves, spotted stems that are hollow. Small white flowers. Introduction- Ornamental, erosion control, hedge Habitat- Typically wet soils. Shade, drought, salt, and heat tolerant. Spreads- Seeds and rhizomes (can travel down stream) Ecological Threat- dense thicket shades out natives and clog waterways/culverts Ideal treatment- foliar spray or injection, hand pulling if small, three cut per season method. Plant these instead! Joe-pye-weed Blue false indigo New England aster
  • 12. Multiflora Rose Rosa multiflora Shrub (+ 15 ft tall). Green stems that turn reddish brown in fall/winter, small white flowers, hairs near base of leaf stalk, downward pointing thorns Introduction- Ornamental and livestock fencing Habitat- Wide tolerance for soil, moisture, and light conditions Spreads- Seed and cane tips rooting Ecological Threat- Dense thicket shades out natives and impact bird nesting Ideal treatment- Combo manual/mechanical removal and chemical treatment Plant these instead! Virginia rose Swamp rose New England rose
  • 13. Burning Bush Euonymus alatus Shrub (up to 20 ft tall), opposite, dark green leaves, corky ridges along green or brown stems. Leaves turn bright red in fall. Introduction- Ornamental Habitat- Forests, coastal scrublands, prairies Spreads- Seeds and vegetative reproduction Ecological Threat- Dense thickets replace natives Ideal treatment- Hand pull smaller plants. Repeated cuts or cut and paint Plant these instead! Arrow wood viburnum Oak-leaf hydrangea Witch-alder
  • 14. Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata Herbaceous Biennial (1-4 ft tall), round/heart shaped leaves with deep veining, purplish hairy stems near the root in rosette plant Introduction- Food/medicinal Habitat- Moist to dry forests, roadsides, disturbed areas Spreads- Seeds carried by wind, water, people and wildlife Ecological Threat- Changes soil chemistry preventing native wildflowers and tree seedling growth. Toxic to butterfly larvae. Ideal treatment- Hand pull or cut back before it sets seed Plant these instead! White baneberry Columbine
  • 15. Glossy Buckthorn Frangula alnus Subshrub/Tree (20-25 ft tall), ovate leaves with prominent veining on underside. Gray- brown bark with white lenticels, red roots, dark berries in summer Introduction- Ornamental, Hedge Habitat- Typically in wet soils, sun or full shade. Can establish in dry soils Spreads- Seed Ecological Threat- Dense thicket displaces natives Ideal treatment- Pull smaller individual. Cut and paint larger ones. Buckthorn bags 50% effective Plant these instead! Common witch hazel Black chokecherry Arrow wood viburnum
  • 16. Japanese Barberry Berberis thunbergii Shrub (3-6 ft tall), small, ovate leaves that are green and turn red in the fall. Brown stems with a shard thorn at each leaf node. Red dangling berries. Introduction- Ornamental Habitat- Sun to deep shade, forest, wetlands, fields etc. Spreads- Seeds, root creepers and tip rooting branches Ecological Threat- Displaces natives, can raise soil pH, promotes Lyme disease Ideal treatment- Hand pulling, repeated mowing/cutting, cut stem herbicide treatment Plant these instead! Winterberry Maple leaf viburnum
  • 17. Tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima Tree (up to 80 ft tall), compound, smooth leaves, with glandular nodes. Brown/gray bark with slight texture. Introduction- Ornamental/shade Habitat- Disturbed environments, edge habitats Spreads- Seeds, root suckers Ecological Threat- Displaces natives, host tree for spotted lantern fly, allelopathic chemicals released Ideal treatment- Hand pulling, repeated cutting, cut stem herbicide treatment Plant these instead! Staghorn sumac Pignut hickory White ash
  • 18. Amur corktree Phellodendron amurense Tree (35-50ft), ridged bark that is soft and corky, compound leaves that turn yellow in fall, Introduction- Ornamental/street tree Habitat- Moist woodlands, shady habitats, river floodplains Spreads- Seeds (produces lots of them) Ecological Threat- Displaces natives Ideal treatment- Hand pulling, repeated cutting, cut stem herbicide treatment Plant these instead! White ash Red oak
  • 19. So you have invasives, now what?
  • 24. The land manager’s approach • Identify species present • Determine end goal- eradiation or maintain edge? • Removal and disposal based on the plants and goal • Choose natives to plant • Develop a long term plan
  • 25.
  • 26. HOWTO CHOOSE YOUR NATIVES For a no fuss, low maintenance, high impact garden
  • 27. Determine your habitat conditions • What is your soil like without your assistance? • Dry • Wet (all the time or seasonally) • Clay • Sand • How much direct sunlight do you have? • Full sun- direct light for 6+ hrs/day • Partial sun/shade- direct light for 3-6 hrs/day • Full shade- direct light for less than 3 hrs/day
  • 28. What species are present now? • Are you keeping all the plants in this area? • Native or non-native (ornamental) • Tree, shrub, perennial? • Are there flowers? If so what is the color, bloom time, and structure?
  • 29. What is your goal? • Bird habitat (nesting and/or food source) • Rain garden to capture excess water • Pollinator garden • Hummingbirds • Native Bees • Butterflies • Beneficial insects (ladybugs, green lacewings etc.) • Reduce lawn coverage • Do you want this garden to serve this function for several seasons?
  • 30. Rules to the no fuss native garden • Be lazy! • Once established you should not need to water • Plant close so there are no gaps aka space for weeds or need to mow • No (or minimal) mulch • Use native mints and common milkweed wisely (quick spreaders) • No pesticides or fertilizers- native plants = native insects = native birds • Cut plants back in spring after temps consistently over 50 • Rake leaves (leaf mulch) onto flower beds in fall
  • 31. Where to find native plants? • Plant list to support our pollinators • https://www.svtweb.org/mca-pollinator-preservation-garden-toolkit • Native PlantTrust • Garden Plant Finder tool: https://plantfinder.nativeplanttrust.org/Plant-Search • Russells Garden Center • New EnglandWetland Plants • VermontWildflower Farm • Grow Native • Bigelows • Local Conservation District annual plant sales To learn more about invasives go to www.cisma-suasco.org Go Botany, Seek, Google Lens, iNaturalist—all good tools for plant ID
  • 32. INVASIVE INSECTS (and a couple non-insects)
  • 33. Another threat to biodiversity… Invasive insects/bugs/invertebrates •Threaten native species, as well as agricultural crops •Are increasing in population and expanding their ranges with climate change •Can be much more mobile than some of our invasive plants
  • 34. Spotted Lantern Fly (Lycorma delicatula) • Sap feeding insect, originally from Asia • First found in US in 2014, in Boston in 2018. No active infestations! • Attacks a variety of trees, main host tree is tree of heaven • Heavily impacts grape production and potentially apple orchards • Report to MDAR/MNRC if seen, treatment methods include traps, tree removal, and chemical treatment REPORT IT!
  • 35. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae) • Very small aphid-like insect • Attacks eastern hemlocks (which make up a lot of our forests!) • Feed on stored starches & cause tree death • White woolly egg masses on underside of needles • Treatment can include chemical injection ($$$) or biocontrol (also $$$)
  • 36. Asian Long Horned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) • 0.75”-1.5” long with very long antennae (up to 2x its body length) • First found in MA in 2008—several active quarantines (110 sq miles) • Larvae damage tree by eating sapwood • Exit holes 3/8” or larger in diameter • Host trees include maple, horse chestnut, birch, poplar, willow, elm • Can be confused with whitespotted pine sawyer (native!)
  • 37.
  • 38. Jumping Worms (Amynthas spp.) • Dark gray/brown, 4-5 inches long • Band is white-gray and wraps entirely around the body • Thrash wildly when disturbed—usually at shallow depth • Consume upper level of soil, depleting nutrients for native species • Can be confused with nightcrawlers—band is usually a different color and does not go all the way around • Report to MDAR if seen in MA!
  • 39. Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) • Small, metallic green beetle—usually ½” long • Adults present from mid-May to late June • Distinct S-shaped tunnels beneath tree bark • D-shaped exit holes that are 3-4mm in diameter • Upper part of tree dies off, and lots of shoots come from affected trunk
  • 40. Beech Leaf Disease • Relatively new disease affecting beech trees • Symptoms: dark banding between veins of leaves, premature leaf drop, thinning canopy, deformed or shriveled leaves • Associated with presence of non-native nematode • We still don’t know a lot about this one!
  • 41. Resources for invasive pests… • Reporting & fact sheets: Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources • https://massnrc.org/pests/pestreports.htm • jennifer.forman-orth@state.ma.us –very responsive! • Treatment and identification: UMass Landscape Extension • https://ag.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets • US Department of Agriculture • https://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/us/massachusetts

Editor's Notes

  1. Intro to self- SVT and what a land trust is- CISMA How you can care for your gardens in concert with region land managers to improve wildlife habitat
  2. Seed of mile-a-minute niche= role in the habitat
  3. 2021- numbers from a NYT article looking at the known cost of damages (crop losses, habitat degradation, ecosystem services) and management (removal, restoration etc) Invasive management is done by natural land managers, highway departments, farmers, boaters, powerline companies and sometimes private landowners
  4. Native has terminal flowers vs multiple leaf axils
  5. Possible bio control
  6. Possible bio control
  7. Possible bio control
  8. Possible bio control, increase soil pH an nitrogen mineralization
  9. Possible bio control
  10. Possible bio control
  11. Possible bio control
  12. Possible bio control
  13. Burn, hang, trash, or zoo  Do not compost!
  14. A well planned native garden should require almost no work from you once established. Take the time now to choose the ones best suited for your space to save yourself time, money, and your back. Answer the following questions.