Sains modul edisi penuh ppd batu pahat

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Modul Sains UPSR Edisi Lengkap Tahun 4, 5 dan 6 serta Teknik Menjawab Soalan dan juga contoh set soalan percubaan UPSR

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Sains modul edisi penuh ppd batu pahat

  1. 1. MODUL SAINS UPSR MODUL SAINSTEKNIK MENJAWAB SOALAN UPSR 1
  2. 2. MODUL SAINS UPSR ANSWERING TECHNIQUE FOR SCIENCE SECTION AType of QuestionsJenis soalanSection A questions can be divided into two groups as followed ;Soalan bahagian A boleh dibahagikan kepada dua kumpulan seperti berikut:A. Multiple choice questions Soalan aneka pilihan.B. Combination of multiple choice questions Soalan aneka pilihan gabunganSection A questions can be divided into 10 items ;Soalan Bahagian A boleh dibahagikan kepada 10 item:(a) Fact / Fakta(b) Terminology / Istilah(c) Method / Kaedah(d) Sequence / Urutan(e) Classifying / Mengelasf) Principle / Prinsip(g) Interpreting / Mentafsir(h) Extrapolation / Ekstrapolasi(i) Translation / Terjemahan(j) Application / AplikasiQuestions in Section A can be groups as followed;Soalan Bahagian A boleh dikumpulkan seperti berikut:Knowledge elementsElemen PengetahuanFact, Terminology, Sequence, Method, Classifying and Principle.Fakta, Istilah, Urutan , Kaedah, Mengelas dan PrinsipUnderstanding elementsElemen PemahamanTranslation, Interpreting, Extrapolation and ApplicationTerjemahan, Tafsiran, Ekstrapolasi dan Aplikasi 2
  3. 3. MODUL SAINS UPSRANSWERING TECHNIQUE FOR SECTION BTEKNIK MENJAWAB SOALAN BAHAGIAN BBahagian B berbeza dengan bahagian A. Bahagian A menguji pengetahuan manakala dalambahagian B calon diuji Kemahiran Proses Sains [KPS]. Oleh kerana itulah, terdapat soalan-soalan semacam bukan dalam topik yang diajar. KPS ini mempunyai cara dan kaedahmenjawabnya yang tersendiri. Oleh itu murid perlu memahami cara untuk menjawabnya. Berikutditerangkan secara ringkas cara / kaedah untuk menjawab.PEMERHATIAN ( Observation ):• MELIHAT / PEMERHATIAN menggunakan 5 deria – perubahan atau perbezaan yang berlaku selepas eksperimen dijalankan.• MENYATAKAN ( MENULIS ) HASIL PEMERHATIAN Pemerhatian boleh dalam bentuk perubahan / perbezaan dari segi: • Saiz ( size ) • kuantiti ( quantity ) • bilangan ( number ) • jisim ( • warna ( colour ) • berat ( mass / weight ) • ketinggian ( height ) • keadaan ( condition ) *Pemerhatian = hasil / keputusan eksperimen (ujikaji) What is your observation? What can you say about this fair test? Lembu P Lembu Q Pemerhatian: Lembu Q lebih besar daripada Lembu P ( Saiz lembu ) ( Obsevation ) ( berat lembu ditolak = tiada dinyatakan besar dalam rajah ) Cow Q is bigger than Cow P // Cow P small, Cow Q big 3
  4. 4. MODUL SAINS UPSRINFERENS:Menyatakan sebab / memberi alasan kepada pemerhatian yang berlaku.... Jadikan pemerhatian sebagai soalan dan cari jawapannya….…… jawapan kepada soalan itu ialah inferens ! Give one inference from this fair test? Give one reason about the observation Lembu P Lembu QJika pemerhatian: ( KENAPA ?)Lembu Q Lebih besar daripada Lembu PInferes : kerana Lembu Q makan lebih banyak daripada Lembu P( secara mudah : Pemerhatian = akibat ( yang dilihat ) / Inferens = sebabnya )Observation: ( Why ?) Cow Q is bigger than Cow P // Cow P small, Cow Q bigInferens : Cow Q eat more than cow P // Cow P eat less, Cow Q eat morePEMBOLEH UBAH ( VARIABLE ):Terdapat 3 pembolehubah:- Malar ( Fixed Variable / constant variable / control variable) Yang sama, serupa, tetap atau tidak berubah Manipulasi (PM) ( To Change // manipulate variable) Yang diubah ( oleh manusia ) sebelum eksperimen dijalankan bergerakbalas (PB) ( To Observe / to measure // responding variable ) Yang berubah selepas eksperimen dijalankan ( berubah sendiri ) From the experiment, state the thing : 3 langkah mencari pembolehubah PM/PB dalam soalan: Langkah1 – cari 2 maklumat yang berbeza Langkah2 – tentukan yang berubah ( sendiri dan yang diubah ( oleh manusia) Langkah3 – Oleh itu yang diubah = PM dan yang berubah = PB 4
  5. 5. MODUL SAINS UPSRCari PM / PB berdasarkan jadual : PM ( TC ) PB ( TO ) PM ( TC ) PB ( TO )Pembolehubah ( variable ) mesti ditulis dalam bentuk gabungan antara: Parameter dan objek Parameter Objek • Saiz • bilangan • warna • ketinggian Saiz pokok • kuantiti Baja Bilangan pokok • jisim Air Kuantiti baja • berat Pokok Berat baja • keadaan Parameter Object • size • number • colour Number of plant • height Of fertilizer Quantity of water • quantity Air Mass of fertilizer • mass / weight plant • conditionHIPOTESIS / HUBUNGAN / KESIMPULAN( HYPOTHESIS / RELATIONSHIP / CONCLUSION ) a. Draw one conclusion from the investigation above b. What you can conclude from the investigation above ? c. What is the relationship can you makes from this fair test ?If To Change ( less / more ), than To Observe ( Less / More ) ORThe More / Less To Change, The More / Less To ObserveSemakin (pola) PM , Semakin ( pola ) PB AtauJika PM ( pola ), Maka PB ( pola ) 5
  6. 6. MODUL SAINS UPSRQuantity of Cylinder 2 3 5Number of wood when the structure collapse 1 5 3= The More quantity of cylinder, the more number of wood when the structure collapse= If quantity of cylinder increase, number of wood when the structure collapse increase= semakin bertambah quantity of cylinder semakin bertambah number of wood when the structure collapse= jika quantity of cylinder bertambah, maka number of wood when the structure collapse bertambahTAJUK / TUJUAN EKSPERIMEN ( PENYIASATAN )( AIM / PURPOSE OF THE EKSPERIMENT ) What is the purpose of this experiment ? What is the aim of this experiment ?To investigate the relationship between To Change and To Observe .Untuk menyiasat hubungan antara PM dengan PB .Quantity of Cylinder 2 3 5Number of wood when the structure collapse 1 5 3= To investigate the relationship between Quantity of Cylinder and Number of wood whenthe structure collapse= Untuk menyiasat hubungan antara Quantity of Cylinder dengan Number of wood when thestructure collapsePOLA / CORAK: ( PATTERN / TREND )Menyatakan bentuk kenaikan / penurunan sesuatu nilai.Hanya terdapat 3 pilihan / cara jawapan untuk pola / corak, iaitu; • (semakin) menaik / meningkat / bertambah ( Increase // Increasing // Ascending ) • (semakin) menurun / berkurang / sedikit ( Decrease // Decreasing // descending ) • Tetap / sama / tidak berubah / mendatar ( same // not change )TETAPI terdapat juga soalan yang memerlukan gabungan 2 atau lebih pola / corak dalam satujawapan. 6
  7. 7. MODUL SAINS UPSR State the pattern of the number of the wood? 25 30 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Menaik / increase 54 45 33 25 23 20 15 14 12 Menurun / Decrease 25 28 32 40 45 55 60 60 60 Menaik, sama / increase, same Menaik, sama, menurun // 5 15 25 35 45 45 45 40 35 increase, same, decreaseRAMALAN ( PREDICT ):Menyatakan nilai yang sepatutnya berdasar nilai yang telah diberi. Kerja – kerja pengiraan perludibuat untuk mendapatkan nilai tersebut. Predict the time taken when the quantity of boxes is 4 ?Contoh:Jumlah baja (g) 10 20 30 40Tinggi pokok kacang (cm) 24 28 32 36Berapa tinggi pokok kacang jika 45g baja diberikan. +10 +10 +10 +5Pengiraan:Jumlah baja (g) 10 20 30 40 45 50Tinggi pokok kacang (cm) 24 28 32 36 sepatutnya 38 40 +4 +4 +4 +2Jumlah baja meningkat sebanyak 10 jika 45 meningkat 5 ( separuh ), maka tinggi pokok naik 4dan jika 45 (juga terpaksa naik separuh iaitu 2) maka tingginya ialah 38 dan BUKAN 40 !TETAPI terdapat juga soalan yang bertanyakan tentang ramalkan apakah yang akan berlakujika… 7
  8. 8. MODUL SAINS UPSRMODUL SAINS TAHUN 4 8
  9. 9. MODUL SAINS UPSR BASIC NEEDS KEPERLUAN ASASBASIC NEEDS OF HUMANS AND ANIMALSKEPERLUAN ASAS MANUSIA DAN HAIWAN1. The basic needs of humans and animals are food, water, air and shelter. Keperluan asas manusia dan haiwan ialah makanan, air, udara dan tempat berlindung.2. Humans and animals need food and water to grow, get energy and stay healthy. Manusia dan haiwan memerlukan makanan dan air untuk membesar, untuk mendapatkan tenaga dan kekal sihat.3. Humans and animals need air to breathe. Manusia dan haiwan memerlukan udara untuk bernafas.4. Humans and animals need shelter to protect themselves from danger, the sun and the rain. Manusia dan haiwan memerlukan tempat berlindung untuk melindungi diri daripada bahaya, matahari dan hujan.BASIC NEEDS OF PLANTSKEPERLUAN ASAS UNTUK TUMBUHAN1. The basic needs of plants are water, air and sunlight. Keperluan asas tumbuhan ialah air, udara dan cahaya matahari. LIFE PROCESSES PROSES HIDUPHUMANS BREATHEMANUSIA BERNAFAS1. Humans breathe. Humans use their lungs to breathe. Manusia bernafas. Manusia bernafas menggunakan paru-paru. 9
  10. 10. MODUL SAINS UPSR2. When we breathe we inhale (take in) and exhale (let out) air. Apabila kita bernafas kita akan menyedut dan menghembuskan udara.3. The air that flows into the lungs contains more oxygen. Udara yang memasuki paru-paru mengandungi lebih oksigen.4. The air that flows out contains more carbon dioxide. Udara yang dihembus keluar mengandungi lebih karbon dioksida. nose windpipe lungs The human breathing organs Organ pernafasan manusiaHUMANS EXCRETE AND DEFECATEMANUSIA BERKUMUH DAN BERNYAHTINJA1. Humans excrete and defecate to get rid of waste materials from their bodies. Manusia berkumuh dan bernyahtinja untuk menyingkirkan bahan buangan dari badan.2. Humans excrete urine, sweat and water from their bodies. Manusia mengumuhkan air kencing, peluh dan air dari badan.3. The excretory organ of humans are the kidneys, skin and lungs. Organ perkumuhan manusia adalah ginjal, kulit dan paru-paru.RESPONSE TO STIMULIBERGERAK BALAS TERHADAP RANGSANGAN1. Humans respond to stimuli to protect themselves from danger and for survival. Manusia bergerak balas terhadap rangsangan untuk melindungi diri mereka daripada bahaya dan kemandirian. 10
  11. 11. MODUL SAINS UPSRHUMANS REPRODUCEMANUSIA MEMBIAK1. Humans reproduce by giving birth. Manusia membiak dengan melahirkan anak.2. Humans need to reproduce to ensure to continuity of humans species on Earth. Manusia perlu membiak untuk memastikan spesies manusia terus wujud di Bumi ini.AVOID BAD HABITSMENJAUHKAN TABIAT BURUK1. Smoking, taking drugs and drinking alcohol can be harmful to the life processes of humans. Merokok, mengambil dadah dan minum arak boleh membahayakan proses hidup manusia.ANIMALS EXCRETE AND DEFECATEHAIWAN BERKUMUH DAN BERNYAHTINJA1. Animals also excrete and defecate to get rid of waste products from their bodies Haiwan juga berkumuh dan bernyahtinja untuk menyingkirkan bahan buangan daripada badan.2. If they do not excrete or defecate they will fall sick. Jika haiwan-haiwan tidak berkumuh atau bernyahtinja, haiwan-haiwan itu akan jatuh sakit.ANIMALS BREATHEHAIWAN BERNAFAS1. All animals breathe. They breathe to live. Semua haiwan bernafas. Mereka bernafas untuk hidup.2. Animals breathe through their breathing structures. Examples: lungs, gills, trachea structure, dan moist skin. Haiwan bernafas melalui struktur pernafasan masing-masing. Contohnya: paru-paru, insang struktur trakea dan kulit lembap. 11
  12. 12. MODUL SAINS UPSRANIMAL REPRODUCEHAIWAN MEMBIAK1. Animals also reproduce. Haiwan juga membiak.2. Some animals give birth and also some lay eggs. Sesetengah haiwan melahirkan anak dan sesetengah haiwan bertelur.A COMPLETE CHANGEPERUBAHAN YANG LENGKAP1. A life cycle shows the series of stages tahat an animal undergoes as it grows. Kitar hidup menunjukkan urutan peringkat yang dilalui oleh haiwan semasa haiwan itu membesar. The life cycle of frog Kitar hidup katak The life cycle of butterfly Kitar hidup rama-rama2. Some young animals do not look like their parents. Some young animals look like their parents. Sesetengah anak haiwan tidak kelihatan seperti induknya. Sesetengah anak haiwan 12
  13. 13. MODUL SAINS UPSR kelihatan seperti induknya.PLANTS RESPOND TO STIMULITUMBUHAN BERGERAK BALAS TERHADAP RANGSANGAN1. Plants respond to stimuli such as sunlight, water, touch and gravity. Tumbuhan bergerak balas terhadap rangsangan seperti cahaya matahari, air, sentuhan dan gravity.2. Plants respond to stimuli to protect themselves from danger or for survival. Tumbuhan bergerak balas terhadap rangsangan untuk melindungi diri daripada bahaya atau untuk kemandirian.3. The roots respond to water and gravitiy. Akar bergerak balas terhadap air dan gravity.4. The shoots respond to sunlight. Pucuk bergerak balas terhadap cahaya matahari.PLANTS REPRODUCETUMBUHAN MEMBIAK1. Plants reproduce to ensure the survival of their species. Tumbuhan membiak untuk memastikan kemandirian spesiesnya.2. Plants reproduce in many different ways. Tumbuhan membiak dalam pelbagai cara. • through seeds - a papaya plant melalui biji benih - pokok betik • through spores - ferns, mushroom melalui spora - paku pakis, cendawan • through suckers - banana tree melalui sulur/ anak pokok - pokok pisang • through stem-cutting - tapioca, hibiscus plants melalui keratan batang - pokok ubi kayu, pokok bunga raya • through leaves - bryophyllum, begonia melalui daun • through underground stems - ginger plant melalui batang bawah tanah - pokok halia 13
  14. 14. MODUL SAINS UPSR QUESTIONS ABOUT THE BASIC NEEDS OF LIVING THINGSSECTION ABAHAGIAN AUNIT 11. Which of the following are the basic needs of plants? Antara keperluan asas yang berikut, manakah keperluan asas bagi tumbuhan? I. Air II. Sunlight Udara Cahaya matahari III. Water IV. Food Air MakananA. I and III only C. I,IIIand IV only I dan III saja I,III dan IV sajaB. I,II,and III only D. I,II,III and IV I,II dan III saja I,II,III dan IV2. Humans need shelter to.... Manusia memerlukan tempat berlindung untuk..... A. stay alive C. grow healthily kekal hidup membesar dengan sihat B. keep the air in D. protect them from bad weather menyimpan udara melindungi diri daripada cuaca buruk3. The diagram below shows an investigation Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu penyiasatan 14
  15. 15. MODUL SAINS UPSR What conclusion can be drawn from the investigation? Apakah kesimpulan yang boleh dibuat daripada penyiasatan ini? A. Plants need water to live Tumbuhan memerlukan air untuk hidup B. Plants need air to live Tumbuhan memerlukan udara untuk hidup C. Plants need food to live Tumbuhan memerlukan makanan untuk hidup D. Plants need sunlight to live Tumbuhan memerlukan cahaya matahari untuk hidup4. Which of the following is not a basic need of animals? Antara yang berikut manakah yang bukan keperluan asas haiwan? A. Space B. Food C. Water D. Air Ruang Makanan Air Udara5. Plants absorb water through their....... Tumbuhan menyerap air melalui........ A. Stems B. Leaves C. Roots D. Branches Batang Daun Akar RantingUNIT 21. Look at the information below. Perhatikan maklumat di bawah. “Breathing involves inhalation and exhalation.” “Pernafasan melibatkan menarik nafas dan menghembus nafas”.What happen during inhalation?Apakah yang berlaku semasa menarik nafas?I The lungs expand. Peparu mengembang.II The lung contract. Peparu mengecut.III Air is forced out of the lungs. Udara dikeluarkan dari peparu. 15
  16. 16. MODUL SAINS UPSRIV Air flows in from outside through the nose. Udara mengalir dari luar melalui hidung.A I and III C I and IV I danIII I dan IVB II andIII D II and IV II dan III II dan IV2. What is the meaning of excretion? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan perkumuhan? A. The life process to produce offspring. Proses hidup bagi menghasilkan anak. B. Something that causes response in humans. Sesuatu yang menyebabkan manusia bergerakbalas. C. The process to get rid of urine, sweat and water from the bodies. Proses penyingkiran air kencing, peluh dan air daripada tubuh. D. The action to take in air during breathing. Tindakan menyedut udara masuk ketika bernafas.3. Smoking is harmful to the body because it can cause Merokok membahayakan kesihatan kerana ia boleh menyebabkan I. Lung cancer II. Heart attack III. Diabetic Kanser paru-paru Serangan jantung Kencing manisA. I only C. II and III only I sahaja II dan III sahajaB. I and II only D. I , II and III I dan II sahaja I , II dan III4 . Which of the following animals has the same breathing structure as the grasshopper? Antara haiwan yang berikut, manakah yang mempunyai struktur pernafasan yang sama seperti belalang? A. Duck B. Tadpole C. Turtle D. Cockroach Itik Berudu Penyu Lipas5. The diagram shows a plant. Rajah menunjukkan sejenis tumbuhan. 16
  17. 17. MODUL SAINS UPSR The plant reproduces through.... Tumbuhan ini membiak melalui.... A. Leaves B. Spores C. Seeds D. Stem cutting Daun Spora Biji benih Keratan batangSECTION BBAHAGIAN B 1. The table below shows an investigation that is carried out on two plants M and N. Both plant M and N are of the same type. Both plants are observed after a week. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan satu penyiasatan yang dijalankan ke atas dua tumbuhan M dan N. Kedua-dua tumbuhan M dan N adalah dari jenis yang sama. Kedua-dua tumbuhan perhatikan selepas dua minggu. Plant Presence or absence of water Tumbuhan Kehadiran atau ketiadaan air No water M Tiada air Water N Air a) What is the purpose of the investigation ? Apakah tujuan penyiasatan? ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… b) State what happen to ? Nyatakan apa yang terjadi kepada? i. Plant M : ………………………………………………………….. Tumbuhan M: .................................................................................. ii. Plant N : ………………………………………………………….. Tumbuhan N: ................................................................................. c) State what to change in the above investigation. Nyatakan apa yang berubah pada penyiasatan di atas. 17
  18. 18. MODUL SAINS UPSR ……………………………………………………………………………… d) What can you conclude from the investigation above ? Apakah kesimpulan anda daripada penyiasatan di atas? ……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………2. Diagram 1 shows an experiment carried out by a group of students. Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu eksperiment yang dijalankan oleh sekumpulan pelajar. Mouse P Mouse Q Tikus P Tikus Q Diagram 1 Rajah 1 a) What is the purpose (aim) of this investigation? Apakah tujuan penyiasatan ini ? .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. b) In this experiment, .... Dalam eksperimen ini,.... i. what is changed ( manipulated variable)? apakah yang diubah ( pemboleh ubah dimanipulasikan) ? ........................................................................................................................... ii. what is kept the same ( constant variable)? apakah yang ditetapkan ( pemboleh ubah dimalarkan) ? ........................................................................................................................... c) What do you think will happen to the mouse Q after five days? Apakah yang akan berlaku kepada tikus Q selepas lima hari? 18
  19. 19. MODUL SAINS UPSR ............................................................................................................................ d) Give one reason (inference) based on your answer in (c). Beri satu sebab (inferens) berdasarkan jawapan anda di (c). ............................................................................................................................ ANIMALS PROTECT THEMSELVESProtect from danger1. Animals need to protect themselves from enemis. Haiwan perlu melindungi diri daripada musuh masing-masing.2. They have specific characteristic and behaviour to protect themselves rfom their enemies. Haiwan mempunyai ciri-ciri dan kelakuan khusus untuk melindungi diri daripada musuh.Living in extreme weather1. Some animals live in habitats with extreme weather, either very cold or very hot weather. Sesetengah haiwan hidup di dalam habitat yang mempunyai cuaca yang melampau, sama ada sangat sangat sejuk atau sangat panas.2. So, these animals have specific characteristics and behaviour to protect themselves from extreme weather. Jadi, haiwan-haiwan ini mempunyai cirri-ciri dan kelakuan khas untuk melindun gi daripada cuaca yang melampau. PLANTS PROTECTION 1. Plants have specific characteristics which protect them from their enemies and weather. Tumbuhan mempunyai ciri-ciri khas yang melindunginya daripada musuh dan cuaca. 2. Plants have thorns, latex, fine hairs and poisonous substance to protect from the enemies. Tumbuhan mempunyai getah, bulu halus, duri dan bahan beracun untuk melindungi diri daripada musuh. 19
  20. 20. MODUL SAINS UPSR 3. Plants drop their leaves, has waxy leaves, rolling the leaves, leaves and stems that store water, roots that grow deeply, divides leaves, buttress roots and sheeding leaves to protect from the cold and hot weather. Tumbuhan mengugurkan daun, mempunyai daun berlilin, menggulungkan daun, daun dan batang yang mengandungi air, akar yang tumbuh panjang ke dalam tanah, daun yang berbelah-belah, akar banir dan menggugurkan daun untuk melindungi diri daripada cuaca sejuk dan panas. Questions about the protectionsSection A1. The information below shows how animals S and T protect themselves from danger. Maklumat di bawah menunjukkan bagaimana haiwan S dan T melindungi daripada bahaya S - Rolls its body Menggulungkan badannya T - Produces a bad smell Mengeluarkan bau busuk What are animals S and T ? Apakah haiwan S dan T ? S T A Pangolin Lizard Tenggiling Cicak B Porcupine Chameleon Landak Sumpah-sumpah Tortoise Beetle C Kura-kura Kumbang Scorpion Snail D Kala jengking Siput 20
  21. 21. MODUL SAINS UPSR2. Which of the following animals have thick layers of fat under their skin to enable them to live in cold weather ? Antara berikut, haiwan yang manakah mempunyai lapisan lemak yang tebal di bawah kulit untuk membolehkannya hidup dalam cuaca yang sejuk. I Camel ll Eagle Unta Helang III Penguin IV Polar bear Penguin Beruang kutub A I and III C II and III I dan III II dan III B II and IV D III and IV II dan IV III dan IV3. Diagram 1 shows plant P Rajah 1 menunjukkan tumbuhan P Diagram 1 Which of the following specific characteristics allow plant P to survive in areas where there are strong winds? Antara ciri-ciri khas berikut, yang manakah membolehkan tumbuhan P hidup di kawasan yang berangin kencang ? A Having buttress roots C Having flexible stems Mempunyai akar banir Mempunyai batang yang mudah melentur B Having splited leaves D Having needle-shaped leaves Mempunyai daun berpecah-pecah Mempunayai daun berbentuk jarum 21
  22. 22. MODUL SAINS UPSR 4. Which of the following characteristics protect a plant from being eaten by animal Antara ciri yang berikut, manakah yang melindungi tumbuhan daripada dimakan oleh haiwan ? P - Has a bad smell Berbau busuk Q - Produces sticky latex Mengeluarkan getah yang melekit R - Has divided leaves Mempunyai daun yang berbelah-belah A P and Q C Q and R P dan Q Q dan R B P and R D P, Q and R P dan R P, Q dan R5. Which of the following is not the characteristics of animals that live in very hot weather to lose heat from their bodies ? Antara yang berikut yang manakah bukan ciri haiwan yang hidup di cuaca yang sangat panas untuk menghilangkan haba daripada tubuhnya? A Having long ears Mempunyai telinga yang panjang B Having a thick layer of fat Mempunyai lapisan lemak yang tebal C Looking for at night Mencari makanan pada waktu malam D Staying in the shade during the day Berlindung di bawah bayang-bayang semasa siang hari. 22
  23. 23. MODUL SAINS UPSRSection B1. Figure 1 shows an investigation on three potted plants. The plants are left in the Sun and not watered for two weeks. Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu penyiasatan terhadap tiga tumbuhan di dalam pasu. Tumbuhan dibiarkan di bawah Matahari dan tidak disiram selama dua minggu. Figure 1 / Rajah 1 The results of the investigation after two weeks are shown in Table 1. Keputusan penyiasatan selepas dua minggu ditunjukkan di dalan Jadual 2. Plant Wilted Growing healthy Tumbuhan Layu Tumbuh dengan subur Balsam plant / Pokok Keembung / Chilli plant / Pokok cili / Cactus / Kaktus / 23
  24. 24. MODUL SAINS UPSR Table 2 / Jadual 2 (a) What is the purpose (aim) of this investigation ? Apakah tujuan penyiasatan ini ? ......................................................................................................................... (b) In this investigation, state Dalam penyiasatan ini, nyatakan i. What is change (manipulated variable) pembolehubah dimanipulasikan ………………………………………………………………………….. ii. What is observed (responding variable) pembolehubah bergerak balas ................................................................................................................ (c) Which plant do you think can survive in a dry region ? Tumbuhan yang manakah pada fikiran kamu boleh hidup di kawasan kering? …………………………………………………………...………………………….. (d) Give one reason (inferens) for you answer in (c) Berikan satu inferens bagi jawapan kamu di (c) ....................................................................................................................................2. Diagram 1 shows a type of plant and animal. Rajah 1 menunjukkan sejenis tumbuhan dan haiwan. 24
  25. 25. MODUL SAINS UPSR Diagram 1 Rajah 1 (a) State the region where the plant and the animal live. Nyatakan kawasan di mana tumbuhan dan haiwan itu hidup …………………………………………………………………………… (b) What is the specific characteristic of the plant and the animal which enables them to survive in their habitat? Apakah cirri khas tumbuhan dan haiwan itu yang mmembolehkannya hidup di habitatnya ? i. K : ………………………………………………………………… ii. L : ………………………………………………………………… ` (c) State the function of the specific characteristic of the plant and the animal that you have started in (b). Nyatakan fungsi ciri khas tumbuhn dan haiwan yang kamu nyatakan di (b). ……………………………………………………………………………… MEASUREMENTMeasuring length1. Length is the distance between two points or two place Panjang ialah jarak di antara dua titik atau tempat.2. In olden days, humans used their limbs to measure length. Pada zaman dahulu, manusia menggunakan anggota badan untuk mengukur Panjang.3. Nowdays, ruler and measuring tapes are used as the standard tools to measure length Kini, pembaris dan pita pengukur digunakan sebagai alat pengukur piawai untuk mengukur panjang pembaris. 25
  26. 26. MODUL SAINS UPSR4. Metric units are used to measure length. The milimetre (mm) and centimeter (cm) are used to measure short lengths. The metre (m) and kilometer (km) are used to measure long length. Unit metric digunakan untuk mengukur panjang. Milimeter (mm) dan sentimeter (cm) digunakan untuk mengukur jaraka yang pendek. Meter (m) dan kilometer (km) digunakan untuk mengukur jarak yang panjang.5. The circumference or an object or a curve line can be measured by using a ruler and a thread. Ukur lilit sesuatu objek atau garis lengkung boleh diukur menggunakan pembaris dan benang.Area / luas1. The area of a surface is the size of the surface Luas sesuatu permukaan ialah saiz permukaan itu.2. The area of a square or a rectangle can be obtained by calculating, using the following formula. Luas segi empat sama atau segi empat tepat boleh diperolehi dengan penghitungan, menggunakan formula yang berikut. Area = Length x Width Luas = Panjang x lebar3. The area of small surface is measured in square milimetres (mm) or square centimeters (cm). Luas permukaan yang kecil diukur dalam millimeter persegi (mm) atau sentimeter persegi (cm).4. The area of large surface is measure in square metres (m) or square kilometers (km) Luas permukaan yang besar diukur dalam meter persegi (m) atau kilometer persegi (km)Volume / isipadu1. The volume of an object is the size of the space in object . Isi padu sesuatu objek ialah saiz ruang dalam objek itu.2. The volume of a cube or cuboid can be obtained by calculation, using the following formula: Isipadu kubus atau kuboid boleh diperolehi dengan penghitungan menggunakan formula yang berikut: 26
  27. 27. MODUL SAINS UPSR Volume = Length x width x height Isipadu = Panjang x lebar x tinggi3. Volume is measured in cubic milimeteres (mm), cubic centimeters (cm) or cubic metres (m). Isipadu diukur dalam millimeter padu (mm), sentimeter padu (cm), atau meter padu (m)Volume of a liquid1. The volume of a liquid can be measured by using a standard object such as a beaker or a measuring cylinder Isipadu cecair boleh diukur dengan menggunakan objek piawai seperti bikar atau silinder penyukat.2. The volume of a liquid can be measured in cubic centimeters (cm). milimetres (ml) or litres (l). Isipadu cecair diukur dalam sentimeter padu (cm), millimeter (ml) atau liter (l).Measuring mass1. All things have mass. Semua benda mempunyai jisim.2. Mass can be measured by using a lever balance, beam balance or electronic balance. Jisim boleh diukur dengan menggunakan neraca tuas, neraca palang atau neraca elektronik.3. The standard units of mass in te metric system are the milligram (mg), gram (g) and kilogram (kg). Unit piawai bagi jisim dalam system metric ialah milligram (mg), gram (g) dan kilogram (kg).Taking time1. Time is an interval between two events. Masa ialah selang di antara dua peristiwa.2. Time can be measured based on process that repeat uniformly. Masa boleh diukur berdasarkan proses yang berulang secara seragam.3. In the past, people had invented tools to measured time. Pada zaman dahulu, manusia telah mencipta alat untuk mengukur masa. 27
  28. 28. MODUL SAINS UPSR4. Nowdays, standard tools such as the stopwatch, digital watch and digital clock are used to measure time. Kini alat piawai seperti jam randik, jam tangan digital dan jam berdigit digunakan untuk mengukur masa.5. The standard units of time are the scond, minute and hour. Unit piawai bagi masa ialah saat, minit dan jam. QUESTIONS ABOUT THE MEASUREMENTSection A1. What is the suitable measuring unit used for measuring the distance from Melaka to Johor Bahru ? Apakah yang sesuai digunakan untuk mengukur jarak dari Melaka ke Johor Bahru ? A Milimetre C Centimetre Milimeter Sentimeter B Metre D Kilometre Meter Kilometer2. What is meant by area ? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan luas ? A Size of space C Size of surface Saiz suatu ruang Saiz suatu permukaan B Distance between two point D Height of an object Jarak di antara dua titik Ketinggian suatu objek3. Which of the following empty boxes can keep the most number of marbles ? Antara kotak kosong berikut, yang manakah boleh menampung bilangan guli yang palaing banyak ? 28
  29. 29. MODUL SAINS UPSR4. The diagram shows the mass of three objects, P, Q and R Rajah menunjukkan jisim tiga objek, P, Q dan R Which of the following shows the correct relationship between the mass of P,Q and R ? Antara yang berikut, yang manakah menunjukkan betul antara jisim P,Q dan R ?Section B1. A group of pupils from 5 Bestari carried out an investigation about the time taken of pendulum to swing with the different length of string in 20 second. Sekumpulan murid dari 5 Bestari menjalankan suatu penyiasatan tentang masa yang diambil untuk bandul berayun dengan benang yang panjang berbeza dalam 20 saat. 29
  30. 30. MODUL SAINS UPSR (a) What is the aim of this investigation Apakah tujuan penyiasatan ini? .............................................................................................................................. (b) State : Nyatakan: (i) What is change (manipulated variable)? Apakah yang diubah (pembolehubah dimanipulasi) ? ………………………………………………………………………………….. (ii) What is observe (responding variable) ? Apakah yang diukur (pembolehubah bergerak balas) ? .............................................................................................................................. (c) What is the trend of the pendulum swing ? Apakah corak ayunan bandul ? ………………………………………………………………………………….. (d) Predict how many times the pendulum will swing if 20 cm of string is used? Ramalkan berapa kali ayunan bandul jika 20 cm benang digunakan? …………………………………………………………………………………..2. In investigation, water is allowed to drip from a can with a hole as shown in Diagram 2. The volume of dripping water is collected in a measuring cylinder and measured every 5 minutes. Table 2 shows the result of the investigation. Dalam satu penyiasatan, air dibiarkan menitis dari tin yang berlubang satu seperti ditunjukkan pada Rajah 2. Isipadu air yang meneitis dikumpulkan di dalam selinder penyukat dan disukat setiap 5 minit. Jadual 2 menunjukkan keputusan bagi penyiasatan itu 30
  31. 31. MODUL SAINS UPSR Diagram 2/Rajah 2 Time(minute)/Masa (minit) 0 5 10 15 20 Volume (cm)/Isipadu (cm) 0 10 20 30 40 Table 2/Jadual 2 (a) What is the purpose (aim) of this investigation? Apakah tujuan penyiasatan ini ? ......................................................................................................................... (b) What is the trend of change in the volume of water collected? Apakah corak perubahan isipadu air yang terkumpul? ………………………………………………………………………………. (c) In this investigation, state Dalam penyiasatan ini, nyatakan (i) what is change (manipulated variable) Pembolehubah yang dimanipulasikan ……………………………………………………………………………… (ii) what is observed (responding variable) Pembolehubah yang bergerak balas ……………………………………………………………………………… (d) Predict the volume of water collected in the measuring cylinder after 30 minutes. Ramalkan isipadu air yang terkumpul di dalam selinder penyukat selepas 30 minit. ………………………………………………………………………………….. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS1. Objects can be classified according to the materials they are made off. Objek boleh dikelaskan mengikut bahan yang digunakan. 31
  32. 32. MODUL SAINS UPSR2. Metal, paper, clay, plastics, rubber, leather are the examples of materials. Logam, kertas, tanah liat, plastic, getah, kulit adalah contoh bahan.3. Properties of materials:- Sifat-sifat bahan:- Absorb water./ Menyerap air. Allow light to pass through. / Membenarkan cahaya menembusi Float and sink. / Timbul dan tenggelam Can be stretched. / Boleh diregang. Conduct heat and electricity / Konduktor haba dan elektrik4. Metals that conduct heat are called heat conductor and also conductor of electricity. Logam yang mengalirkan haba juga dipanggil konduktor haba juga konduktor elektrik.5. Materials that do not conduct electricity are called insulator. Bahan yang tidak boleh mengalirkan arus elektrik dipanggil penebat.6. Materials that do not conduct heat are called heat insulator. Bahan yang tidak mengalirkan haba di panggil konduktor haba.7. A transparent material allows light to pass through. Bahan lut sinar adalah bahan yang boleh ditembusi cahaya sepenuhnya.8. A translucent material allows some light to pass through. Bahan lut cahaya membenarkan sebahagian cahaya menmbusinya.9. An opaque material does not allow any light to pass through. bahan legap menghalang cahaya daripada ditembusi.10. Natural materials are found in nature (leather, rubber, wood, fur, metal,cotton, silk). Bahan semulajadi boleh ditemui dari alam (kulit, getah, kayu, bulu, logam, kapas, sutera).11. Man made materials are made by human (plastic and synthetic cloth). Bahan buatan adalah dibuat oleh manusia (plastic dan kain sintatik).12. Natural and man made materials are limited so we have to reuse, reduce and recycle the materials to save our environment. Bahan semulajadi dan buatan adalah terhad , jadi kita perlu menggunakan semula, mengurangkan penggunaan dan kitar semual bahan untuk menyelamatkan persekitaran kita.13. Object made of iron can be rust if exposed to the water and air. Objek besi boleh berkarat jika terdedah kepada air dan udara. 32
  33. 33. MODUL SAINS UPSR 14. The ways to prevent rusting are greasing, painting, tin plating and plastic coating. Cara mengelakkan pengaratan adalah dengan cara melumur minyak, mengecat, sadur timah dan sadur plastic. QUESTIONS ABOUT PROPERTIES OF MATERIALSSECTION A1. Which of the objects below floats on water? Manakah antara objek di bawah terapung di atas air ? A Cork C Glass marble Gabus guli kaca B Coin D Ring Duit syiling gelang2. Diagram 1 shows a mop. Rajah 1 menunjukkan sebatang mop. Diagram 1 What is the property of X? Apakah sifat bagi X ? A It conducts heat. B It floats on water. Konduktor haba Boleh terapung di atas air C It absorbs water. D It can be stretched easily. Boleh menyerap air boleh diregang3. Which one of the following statements is true? Manakah pernyataan yang benar ? A A block of wood conducts electrical energy. Sepotong kayu mengalir tenaga elektrik. B A plastic ruler conducts heat. Pembaris plastik mengalirkan haba. C A rubber band can be stretched. 33
  34. 34. MODUL SAINS UPSR Getah boleh diregang. D A piece of leather allows light to pass through it. Sekeping kulit boleh membenar cahaya menembusinya.4. What is meant by an insulator? Apakah maksud penebat? A An object that floats on water. Objek yang boleh terapung di atas air. B An object that can be stretched. Objek yang boleh diregang. C An object that does not allow light to pass through it. Objek yang tidak membenarkan cahaya menembusinya. D An object that does not conduct electrical energy. Objek yang tidak boleh mengalirkan tenaga elektrik.5. Diagram 2 shows an electric plug. Rajah 2 menunjukkan plug elektrik. Diagram 2 Which of the following is a property of X? Apakah antara berikut adalah sifat X? I Conductor of electrical energy II Conductor of heat Konduktor elektrik Konduktor haba III Can be stretched IV Absorbs water Boleh diregang Menyerap air A I and II only B I, II, and III only C II, III and IV only D I, II, III and IVSection B1 The bar chart in Diagram 1 shows information gathered by a student on objects used in the kitchen. Carta bar di bawah menunjukkan maklumat yang dikumpul oleh murid-murid ke atas objek yang digunakan di dapur. 34
  35. 35. MODUL SAINS UPSR Diagram 1(a) What conclusion can be made from the bar chart? Apakah kesimpulan yang boleh dibuat daripada carta bar? ____________________________________________________________________(b) Suggest one object in the kitchen that is made from… Cadangkan satu objek di dapur yang diperbuat aripada…….. i. glass. kaca ____________________________________________________________________ ii. plastic. plastik _____________________________________________________________________(c) Give one reason why cloth objects were not common in the kitchen. Beri satu sebab mengapa kain tidak biasa di dapur. ____________________________________________________________________2 Diagram 2 shows an experiment carried out by a group of pupils. Rajah 2 menunjukkan eksperimen yang dijalankan oleh sekumpulan murid. 35
  36. 36. MODUL SAINS UPSR Diagram 2(a) What is the aim of the experiment? Apakah tujuan eksperimen ini? ____________________________________________________________________(b) In the experiment, … Dalam eksperimen ini…… i. what is being changed?: _______________________________________________ Apa yang diubah? ii. what is observed?: ___________________________________________________ Apa yang diperhatikan?(c) Name the type of material used in… Namakan jenis bahan yang digunakan untuk………… i. P: ________________________________________________________________ ii. Q: _______________________________________________________________ iii. R: ________________________________________________________________ SOLAR SYSTEM1. The main constituents of the Solar System are the Sun and the planets. Ahli dalam Sistem Solar adalah matahari dan planet.2. The sequence of planets starting from the Sun are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Urutan planet bermula daripada matahari adalah Utarid, Zuhrah, Bumi, Marikh, Musytari, Zuhal, Uranus, Neptune dan Pluto.3. The planets differ in size and distance from the sun. Planet berbeza dari segi saiz dan jarak dari matahari.4. The planets have very different conditions on their surface. 36
  37. 37. MODUL SAINS UPSR Planet mempunyai keadaan permukaan yang berbeza.5. The sun is in the centre of Solar system. Matahari adalah pusat dalam Sistem solar.6. The sun is very big compared to the planets. Matahari sangat besar jika dibandingkan dengan planet.7. All planets move round the sun. Semua planet beredar mengelilingi matahari.8. The ratio of the size of the moon to earth and to the sun is 1:4:400. Nisbah saiz bulan dengan bumi dan matahari adalah 1:4:400.9. The distance from earthto the sun is 400 times the distance from the moon to earth. Jarak dari bumi ke matahari ialah 400 kali jarak daripada bulan ke bumi.10. Earth has water, air and suitable temperature to support life. Bumi mengandungi air, udara dan suhu yang sesuai untuk menampung hidupan.11. If earth is too near to the sun, it will be to hot to support life. Jika bumi terlalu dekat dengan matahari, ia akan menjadi terlalu panas untuk menampung hidupan.12. If earth is to near to the sun., it will be to cold to support life. Jika bumi terlalu jauh dengan matahari, ia akan menjadi terlalu sejuk untuk menampung hidupan.13. Earth is the only planet in the solar system that has life on it. Hanya bumi dalam system solar ini yang mengandungi hidupan. QUESTION ABOUT THE MOON EARTH AND SUNSection A1 . Which of the following statements is not true about the Solar System? A The Solar System consists only of planets. B The Sun is the central of the Solar System. C All planets in the Solar System move around the Sun. D All planets in the Solar System receive light and heat from the Sun.2 . The following are four planets in the Solar System. 37
  38. 38. MODUL SAINS UPSR K – NEPTUNE L – VENUS M– JUPITER N – SATURN The order of the planets from the Sun is as follows. A K, M, L, N B L, M, N, K C M, L, N, K D M, K, L, N3 . Diagram 1 shows the position of planet P, the Earth and planet Q from the Sun. Diagram 1 What are planet P and Q? P Q A Mars Saturn B Pluto Mercury C Uranus Mars D Venus Mars4. Diagram 6 shows the position of planet Earth in the Solar System. Diagram 6 38
  39. 39. MODUL SAINS UPSR What will happen if the Earth is placed at X? I The Earth will receive more light and heat from the Sun. II The Earth will be very cold. III All living things will die. A I and II only B I and III only C II and III only D I, II and III5 . What is the natural satellite orbiting round the Earth? A The Sun B The Moon C The asteroid D The meteoroidSection B1 The following table shows data gathered by a group of pupils. Planet Distance from the Sun Time taken to make one (million km) complete movement around the Sun (year) P 150 1 Q 780 12 R 1430 30 S 2870 84 T 4500 165(a) What is the trend for the time taken to make one complete movement around the Sun? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________(b) State the relationship between the distance from the Sun and the time taken to make one complete movement around the Sun. _________________________________________________________________ 39
  40. 40. MODUL SAINS UPSR _________________________________________________________________(c) Planet X takes 2 years to make one complete movement around the Sun. Predict the position of planet X. _________________________________________________________________ LIVING THINGS EXIST ONLY ON PLANET P.(d) Give two reasons that can be made from the above statement. 1. ______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________ Technology around usHuman limitations 1. Humans can do various things by using their brains, parts of their bodies and sensory organs. Manusia dapat melakukan pelbagai perkara dengan menggunakan otak, anggota badan dan organ deria. 2. However, the ability of humans to do things is limited. Walau bagaimanapun keupayaan manusia untuk melakukan sesuatu perkara adalah terhad. 3. Huamans have invented various devices to overcome their limititations. Manusia telah mencipta perlbagai alat untuk mengatasi had keupayaaan.Development of technology 1. Development of technology has change the lives of humans in the field of communication, transportation, agriculture and constrution. Perkembangan teknologi telah mengubah kehidupan manusia dalam bidang komunikasi, pengangkutan, pertanian dan pembinaan. 40
  41. 41. MODUL SAINS UPSRSolving problems 1. Technology is used to invent machines to help us in our daily work. Technology digunakan untuk mereka cipta mesin-mesin bagi membantu manusia dalam kerja harian.Advantanges and disadvantages 1. Technology gives us many advantages. For example, machines help to increase productivity in agriculture. Teknologi memberi kita banyak kebaikan. Sebagai contoh, mesin membantu meningkatkan pengeluaran hasil pertanian. 2. Technology also brings disadvantages. For example, factories release toxic gases and waste products that cause air and water pollution Teknologi juga membantu keburukan. Sebagai contoh, kilang-kilang melepaskan gas bertoksik dan sisa buangan yang menyebabkan pencemaran udara dan air. QUESTIONS ABOUT THE TEACHNOLOGYSECTION A1 Which of the following devices can be used to overcome the limitation of humans? I Rocket II Telephone III Elevator A I and II only C I and III only B II and III only D I, II and III2 Diagram 1 shows a device used to overcome human limitation. 41
  42. 42. MODUL SAINS UPSR Diagram 1 This device is used in… A transportation. C communication. B agriculture. D medical.3 Diagram 4 shows different types of air transportation. Diagram 4 Which of the following is the correct order in the development of air transportation? AP→ Q→ R→ S BQ→ P→ S→ R CR→ P→ S→ Q DS→ P→ Q→ R4 Which of the following is true about the advantages of development of technology? I Make human more comfortable II Make the work easier and faster III Improve the health standards of humans A I and II only B I and III only C II and III only D I, II and III 42
  43. 43. MODUL SAINS UPSR5 In ancient time, the cave people draw on the cave walls. This shows the way they… I save the information. II produce arts. III communicate with other people. IV decorate their homes. A II and III only B III and IV only C I, II and III only D I, II, III and IVSECTION B1 A teacher carried out an experiment to test the limitation of humans in remembering objects. He uses five students in his experiment. Each student is given two minutes to remember 20 objects. After that, the objects are covered up with a cloth. Each student has to list the names of the objects. Table 1 shows the results of the experiment. Student L M N O P Total objects can be 5 8 12 7 10 remembered Table 1(a) What can you say about the result above? _________________________________________________________________(b) In the experiment, ... i. what is being changed?: ___________________________________________ ii. what is measured?: _______________________________________________(c) i. Which organ is involved in this experiment? _________________________________________________________________ ii. What is the device that can help humans to overcome the limitation of the organ mentioned above?(d) What conclusion can you make from this experiment? _________________________________________________________________ 43
  44. 44. MODUL SAINS UPSR2 Table 2 shows the time taken to travel across the Atlantic Ocean from Europe to America using different types of transport. Year Types of transportation Time taken to travel 1852 Sailing boat 11 days 1938 Steamship 5 days 1985 Cruiser 26 hours Table 2(a) State two statements that you can make from this table. 1. _______________________________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________________________(b) What is the benefit we can get from the invention of the aeroplane engine? _________________________________________________________________(c) State one latest technology that allow people to go deep in the sea. _________________________________________________________________ 44
  45. 45. MODUL SAINS UPSR MODUL SAINS TAHUN 5 Microorganisam1. Microorganism are tiny living things. Microorganism bermaksud hidupan seni (kecil). 45
  46. 46. MODUL SAINS UPSR2. Microorganisms are small that we cannot see them with the naked eyes. We need to use a microscope to see microorganism. Microorganisma adalah sangat kecil sehingga tidak dapat dilihat oleh mata kasar. Kita perlu menggunakan mikroskop untuk melihat mikroorganisma.Types of microorganismThere are four main types of microorganism.Terdapat empat jenis microorganisma yang utama.(a) bacteria Bacteria(b) virus Virus(c) fungi Fungi(d) Protozoa ProtozoaBacteria1. Bacteria are very tiny. Bakteria ialah organisma yang sangat kecil.2. They exist in various forms. Bakteria wujud dalam pelbagai bentuk.3. Bacteria can be found in the air, in water, in soil and on the surfaces that you touch. They live in your body too. Bakteria terdapat di udara, di dalam air, di dalam tanah serta di permukaan yang kamu sentuh. Bakteria hidup di dalam tubuh kamu juga.Virus1. Viruses are the smallest microorganism. Virus ialah microorganisma yang paling kecil.Protozoa1. Protozoa are larger than viruses and bacteria Protozoa lebih besar daripada virus dan bacteria 46
  47. 47. MODUL SAINS UPSR2. They are aquatic organisms. Protozoa ialah organisma akuatikFungi1. Fungi are the largest of the four types of microorganism Fungi adalah yang paling besar antara keempat-empat microorganisma2. Fungi reproduce from spores Fungi membiak daripada spora3. Mushrooms, moulds and yeast are examples of fungi Cendawan, kulapuk dan yis adalah contoh-contoh fungiCharacteristic of microorganismCiri-ciri microorganisma1. Microorganisms breathe to survive. Microorganisma bernafas untuk terus hidup2. Microorganisms grow when conditions are suitable Microorganisma bertumbuh apabila keadaan sesuai.3. Microorganisms move in their own ways Microorganisma bergerak dengan caranya yang tersendiri.Friends or foes1. Some microorganisms are useful but some are harmful Sesetengah microrganisma adalah berguna dan sesetengahnya berbahaya.2. Useful microorganisms can be used in making food. Mikroorganisma yang berguna boleh digunakan untuk membuat makanan3. Harmful microorganisms may cause diseases. Microorganisma yang berbahaya boleh menyebabkan penyakit.4. Diseases caused by microorganisms can spread from one person to another. Penyakit yang disebabkan oleh microorganisma boleh merebak daripada seorang kepada seorang yang lain.5. They are called contagious diseases. Ia disebut penyakit berjangkit.6. A contagious disease can spread through the air, water, food, contact and animals. Penyakit berjangkit boleh merebak melalui udara, air, makanan, sentuhan dan haiwan. 47
  48. 48. MODUL SAINS UPSR7. Diseases caused by harmful microorganisms can be prevented by : Penyakit yang disebabkan oleh microorganisma yang berbahaya boleh dicegah dengan cara : (a) washing hands before handling food or after using the toilet Membasuh tangan sebelum mengendalikan makanan atau selepas menggunakan tandas (b) boiling water or food to kill microorganisms Memasak air atau makanan untuk membunuh microorganisma (c) covering the mouth or nose when coughing or sneezing menutup mulut dan hidung ketika batuk atau bersin (d) covering wounds Membalut luka (e) quarantine Kuarantin QUESTIONS ABOUT MICROORGANISMSECTION A1 Microorganism is a... A living thing that has wings B living thing that lives in water C small living thing that can be seen with the naked eye D very tiny living thing that cannot be seen with the naked eye2 Aisyah makes dough by mixing the following ingredients: Flour, warm water, dried yeast, sugar After 20 minutes, the dough rises. This because… A the yeast dies B the yeast grows. C the yeast moves. D the yeast breathes.3 Which of the following statements is not true about microorganisms? A Microorganisms are living things. B Microorganisms breathes and grows. C Microorganisms cannot be seen with naked eyes. D Microorganisms cannot move from place to place. 48
  49. 49. MODUL SAINS UPSR4 Which of the following pairs is correct? Disease Caused by A Flu Virus B Mumps Fungi C Scabies Bacteria D measles Protozoa5 Which of the following ways can prevent diseases caused by microorganisms from spreading? I Cover up open wounds II Cover the mouth when coughing III Wash hands after using the toilet IV Wash hands before handling foodstuff A I, II and III only B I, III and IV only C II, III and IV only D I, II, III and IVSECTION B1. 49
  50. 50. MODUL SAINS UPSR Figure 1P, Q and R are three similar bowls of rice. Each was sprinkled with different amounts of water asshown in Figure 1. Table 1 below shows the results of the investigation. Amount of water Time taken to be Rice sprinkled mouldy P 5 4 days Q 15 3 days R 25 2 days Table 1(a) What is the aim of this investigation ? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………(b) State the following variables ; 1. Manipulate variable :……………………………………………..……………… 2. Responding variable :…………………………………………..…………………(c) State two controlled variables ; 1. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2. ………………………………………………………………………………………(d) What is the conclusion from this investigation ? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… SURVIVAL OF THE SPECIES KEMANDIRIAN SPESIES 50
  51. 51. MODUL SAINS UPSRSURVIVAL OF ANIMAL SPECIESKEMANDIRIAN SPESIES HAIWAN 1. Species means similar types of living things that can breed among themselves. Spesies ialah hidupan yang sama jenis dan boleh membiak antara satu dengan yang lain. 2. Survival of species means the ability of living things to continue to live in spite of difficulty or danger. Kemandirian spesies bermaksud keupayaan hidupan untuk meneruskan hidup dalam keadaan susah ataupun bahaya. 3. Animals have to reproduce to ensure survival of their species. Haiwan perlu membiak untuk memastikan kemandirian spesiesnya. 4. For this reason, some animals need to take care of their eggs and young. Untuk tujuan ini, sesetengah haiwan perlu menjaga telur dan anaknya. 5. Some examples of animals that take care of their eggs and young are shown in the table below Beberapa contoh haiwan yang menjaga telur dan anaknya ditunjukkan seperti didalam jadual di bawah. Bil Haiwan Take care of their eggs or their young Animals Cara menjaga anak dan telur 1 A spider A spider carries its eggs in a sac Labah-labah Labah-labah membawa telurnya di dalam uncang 51
  52. 52. MODUL SAINS UPSR 2 A kanggaroo A kanggaroo carries its young in its pouch Kanggaru Kanggaru membawa anaknya di dalam kantung 3 Cows Cows stay in herds to protect their calves Lembu Lembu hidup didalam kawanan yang besar untuk melindungi anaknya 4 A bird A bird feeds its young Burung Burung memberi makan kepada anaknya 5 A snake A snake coils itself around its eggs Ular Ular melingkari telurnya 6 A cat A cat nurses its young Kucing Kucing menyusukan anaknya 6. Some animals do not take care of their eggs and young. Sesetengah haiwan tidak menjaga terlur dan anaknya 7. These animals have their own ways of ensuring their young are able to grow into adults. Haiwan-haiwan ini mempunyai cara yang tersendiri untuk memastikan anaknya dapat membesar sehingga dewasa. a) A butterfly lays its eggs on the lower surface of a leaf. Rama-rama bertelur di permukaan bawah daun. b) A turtle buries its eggs in the sand Penyu menimbus telurnya di dalam pasir.PLANT SURVIVALKEMANDIRIAN TUMBUHAN 1. The seeds or fruits of plants need to be dispersed to ensure the survival of their species. Biji benih atau buah tumbuhan perlu dipencarkan untuk memastikan kemandirian spesiesnya. 2. Seeds or fruits are dispersed in the following ways. Biji benih atau buah dipencarkan dengan cara yang berikut: 52
  53. 53. MODUL SAINS UPSR a) By water - coconut Melalui air – buah kelapa b) By animals -papaya Melalui haiwan -betik c) By the wind - angsana Melalui angin - angsana d) By explosive mechanism – balsam seeds Melalui mekanisme letupan- buah keembong 3. The characteristics of fruits dispersed by Ciri-ciri buah yang dipencarkan olehDispersal Characteristics fruitsWind Small, light, and have wing- like structure Petrea, meranti, angsanaAngin Kecil, ringan dan mempunyai struktur seperti sayap Small, light and have fine hairs Klematis, kapas, lalang Kecil, ringan dan banyak bulu halusAnimals Bright colours Rambutan, betik, manggisHaiwan Warna yangn cerah Nice smells Namgka, durian, mangga Bau yang enak Hard seeds Jambu batu, cili Biji benih kulit keras Hooks or spines Semalu , kemuncup Bercangkuk atau berduriWater Light, waxy skins, air space Buah bakau, kelapa, terataiAir Ringan, kulit berlilin, mempunyai rongga udaraExplosive Hard skin, Buah getah, buah jarak,mechanism Kulit keras keembongMekanisma The skin of the fruits are dry when matureletupan Kulit buahnya kering apabila matang QUESTION SURVIVAL OF THE SPECIES SOALAN KEMANDIRIAN SPESIESSection ABahagian A 53
  54. 54. MODUL SAINS UPSR1. Which of the following animals takes care of its young? Antara haiwan yang berikut, manakah yang menjaga anaknya? A. Frog C. Snake Katak Ular B. Tiger D. Nyamuk Harimau Mosquito2. The following information states the characteristics of a seed. Maklumat berikut menyatakan tentang ciri-ciri sejenis biji benih. I am small and light Saya kecil dan ringan I have wings too Saya juga mempunyai kepak I can disperse far away from my parents Saya boleh disebar jauh daripada induk After I fall, I will germinate Selepas saya jatuh, saya akan bercambah What is the dispersion agent for the seed? Apakah agen penyebaran biji benih itu? A Water C Animal Air Haiwan B Wind D Explosive mechanism Angin Mekanisma letupan3. Pictures S, T, U and V shows activities of an animal. Gambar S, T, U dan V menunjukkan aktiviti satu haiwan. 54
  55. 55. MODUL SAINS UPSR What is shown by the activities? Apakah yang ditunjukkan oleh aktiviti itu? A. Competition C. Conservation persaingan Pemuliharaan B. Preservation D. Survival of the species pemeliharaan Kemandirian spesies4. The picture shows two groups of fruit. Gambar menunjukkan dua kumpulan buah. How are the seeds of the different groups of fruit dispersed? Bagaimanakah biji benih bagi kumpulan buah yang berbeza itu disebarkan? Group P Group Q Kumpulan P Kumpulan Q A. Explosive mechanism Animals Mekanisma letupan Haiwan B. Animals Explosive mechanism Haiwan Mekanisma letupan C. Wind Explosive mechanism Angin Mekanisma letupan 55
  56. 56. MODUL SAINS UPSR D. Water Wind Air Angin 5. P, Q, R, and S are four types of fruit. P, Q, R, dan S adalah empat jenis buah. Which of following give possible ways for the fruits to disperse the seeds? Antara berikut manakah cara penyebaran yang betul bagi biji benih buah-buah itu? Fruits Ways of Dispersion Buah Cara penyebaran P Explosive mechanism Mekanisme letupan Q Animal Haiwan R Wind Angin S Water I. P Air II. Q III. R IV. S A I and II only C II, III, and IV only I dan II sahaja II, III, dan IV sahaja B I, III, and IV only D I, II, III, and IV I, III, dan IV sahaja I, II, III, dan IVSECTION B 56
  57. 57. MODUL SAINS UPSR1. Table 1 shows the percentage of the offspring of the two animals that can live until adulthood. Jadual 1 menunjukkan peratus bagi anak kedua-dua haiwan ini yang dapat hidup sehingga dewasa. Type of animals Turtle Chicken Jenis haiwan penyu ayam The percentage of offspring that can live until adulthood Peratus bagi anak haiwan 10% 95% yang dapat hidup sehingga dewasa. Table 1 Jadual 1 a. Based on the information in the table above, state the animals that Berdasarkan maklumat dalam jadual di atas, nyatakan haiwan yang i.Take care of its offspring : ________________________________ Menjaga anaknya ii.Does not take care of its offspring :_________________________ Tidak menjaga anaknya b. State a relationship between whether or not an animal takes care of its offspring and the number of offsprings it produces. Nyatakan hubungan antara sama ada haiwan yang menjaga anaknya atau tidak dengan peratus anak haiwan yang dapat hidup hingga dewasa. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ c. What is observed in this investigation ? Apakah yang dapat diperhatikan dalam penyiasatan ini ? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ d. How does animal X maintain the survival of its species? Bagaimanakah haiwan X mengekalkan kemandirian spesiesnya ? e. Give another two animals do not take care their eggs? 57
  58. 58. MODUL SAINS UPSR Berikan dua contoh haiwan lain yang tidak menjaga telur ? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________2. The table below shows the number of turtles that lay eggs on an island. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan bilangan penyu yang bertelur di sebuah pulau. Year Number of turtles that lay eggs Tahun Bilangan penyu yang bertelur 2002 2 2006 5 2010 7(a) State one reason (inference) based on this information. Nyatakan satu inferens berdasarkan maklumat-maklumat ini. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________(b) Write one reason on the number of turtles that lay eggs to support the answer in 1(a) Tuliskan satu pemerhatian tentang bilangan penyu yang bertelur untuk menyokong jawapan dalam 1 (a). ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________(c) State what is changed (manipulated variable). Nyatakan pemboleh ubah yang dimanipulasikan. ____________________________________________________________________(d) Predict what will happen if the island is developed into a holiday resort. Ramalkan apa yang akan berlaku jika pulau itu dibangunkan menjadi tempat peranginan. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ FOOD CHAINS AND FOOD WEBS RANTAI MAKANAN DAN SIRATAN MAKANAN 58
  59. 59. MODUL SAINS UPSRFOOD CHAINSRANTAI MAKANAN 1. All living things need food to live Semua hidupan memerlukan makanan untuk hidup 2. Green plants can make their own food but animals cannot make their own food Tumbuan hijau membuat makanannya sendiri tetapi haiwan tidak boleh membuat makanannya sendiri. 3. Animals can group into three groups Haiwan boleh dikelaskan di dalam tiga kumpulan a. Herbivores – animals that eat plants only – cow Herbivor – haiwan yang makan tumbuhan sahaja – lembu b. Carnivores – animals that eat other animals only – tiger Karnivor – haiwan yang makan haiwan sahaja – harimau c. Omnivores – animals that eat both plants and other animals. - chicken Omnivor -haiwan yang makan tumbuhan dan haiwan lain – ayam 4. This give rise to food relationship between the living thing examples paddy is eaten by grasshoppers or frog are eaten by snakes Hal ini menyebabkan wujudnya hubungan makanan antara hidupan seperti padi dimakan oleh belalang atau katak dimakan oleh ular PADDY GRASSHOPPER FROG SNAKE PADI BELALANG KATAK ULAR 5. All food chains begins with green plants and that call producers Semua rantai makanan bermula dengan tumbuhan yang dikenali sebagai pengeluar. 6. Animals depend on plants or other animals for food are called consumers Haiwan yang bergantung kepada tumbuhan atau haiwan lain sebagai makanan dikenali sebagai penggunaFOOD WEBSIRATAN MAKANAN 1. A type of food can be found in several food chains Satu jenis makanan boleh terlibat dalam beberapa rantai makanan 59
  60. 60. MODUL SAINS UPSR2. The two or more food chains can be combined to form the following food web Dua atau lebih rantai makanan boleh digabungkan menjadi satu siratan makanan. grasshopper belalang Paddy plant sparrow frog Pokok padi burung pipit katak Rat eagle Tikus burung helang Example of food web Contoh satu siratan makanan3. The food chains founds in the above food web are as shown below Rantai-rantai makanan yang terdapat dalam siratan makanan di atas ialah : i. Paddy plant grasshopper frog eagle Pokok padi belalang katak helang ii. Paddy plant sparrow frog eagle Pokok padi burung pipit katak helang iii. Paddy plant rat frog eagle Pokok padi tikus katak helang4. Food web are important to sustain the balance of nature Siratan makanan adalah penting bagi mengekalkan keseimbangan alam sekitar.5. The balance of nature is ensured if the population of the different species of living things in nature are controlled. Keseimbangan alam sekitar terjamin jika populasi sesuatu spesies dalam alam sekitar terkawal.6. Food webs control the populations of species in an area. Siratan makanan dapat memastikan tidak terlalu banyak atau terlalu sedikit sesuatu jenis hidupan di suatu kawasan.7. A change in the population of a certain species will affect populations of other species. Perubahan dalam populasi sesuatu spesies akan mempegaruhi populasi spesies lain. 60
  61. 61. MODUL SAINS UPSR 8. If as species becomes extinct, all other animals that depend on the species for food may also become extinct or move to another place. Jika sesuatu jenis hidupan pupus, hidupan lain yang bergantung padanya sebagai sumber makanan mungkin pupus atau berpindah ke kawasan lain. QUESTION ABOUT THE FOOD CHAIN AND FOOD WEB SOALAN RANTAI MAKANAN DAN SIRATAN MAKANANBAHAGIAN A 1. The picture show four types of living things in a habitat. Gambar menunjukkan empat jenis hidupan dalam suatu habitat. When all the paddy plants are destroyed by the grasshoppers, the following events will happen. Bila pokok padi dimusnahkan oleh belalang , peristiwa berikut akan berlaku J- Food supply for humans will be reduced J- Sumber makanan manusia akan berkurang K- Carnivores will die K- Karnivor akan mati L- Herbivores will die L- Herbivor akan mati M- Source of food for animals will be reduced M- Sumber makanan bagi haiwan akan berkurang Which of the following shows the correct sequence of the events? Antara berikut yang manakah menunjukkan urutan yang betul bagi peristiwa itu? A J, K, L, M C M, J, L, K B L, K, M, J D M, L, K, J 2. The pictures show five types of animals in an oil palm estate Gambar menunjukkan lima jenis haiwan dalam ladang kelapa sawit. 61
  62. 62. MODUL SAINS UPSR Rat destroyed the oil palm fruit in the estate. Owls were reared to decrease the number of rats. Which other animals will also decrease? Tikus telah merosakkan buah kelapa sawit di lading itu. Burung hantu dibela untuk mengurangkan bilangan tikus. Haiwan lain yang manakah akan turut berkurang? A Mosquitos and snakes C Snakes and sparrows Nyamuk dan ular Ular dan burung pipit B Mosquitos and grasshoppers D Grasshoppers and sparrow Nyamuk dan belalang sparrows Belalang dan burung pipit 3. In a particular habitat, a variety of living things are found. The bar chart in Diagram 3 shows the number of three types of living things in the habitat. Dalam suatu habitat,terdapat pelbagai jenis hidupan.Carta palang dalam Rajah 3 menunjukkan bilangan tiga jenis hidupan di habitat itu. Number 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Paddy Rat Eagle Living plant ththin Diagram 3 gsAll the rats are eliminated. Which of the following bar charts do you expect would shows thechanges in number of paddy lants and eagles?Semua tikus telah di hapuskan. Antara carta palang berikut, yang manakah kamu jangka bolehmenunjukkan perubahan ke atas bilangan pokok padi dan helang. 62

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