To learn specific argumentative writing elements, recognize argumentative structures, and be able to apply the concepts to writing.
This STAIR meets the following standards for WRIT 122 outlined in the course description:
“ Builds upon the writing skills developed in WRIT 121 to help students write argumentative essays which use logical support and appropriate documentation. Emphasizes research techniques and use of sources, and the development, structure, and style of the research paper”
This STAIR is designed for WRIT 122 students at Lansing Community College to work through individually at the beginning of the semester. Click the forward or back arrow to move within the presentation. At the end of the presentation, you will be asked to demonstrate your comprehension through an assessment quiz and practice.
Enjoy and Have Fun!
Argumentative Elements Argumentative Structures Overview—Read First! Claim Reasons Evidence Opposition Appeals Quiz Yourself Practice Overview—Read First! Toulmin Argument Classical Argument Rogerian Argument Quiz Yourself Practice Click on each term to learn more. When you have read through each term, quiz yourself and complete the practice!
When writing any type of argument, there are certain elements that will always be important to incorporate in order to successfully present your argument. The following few slides will outline the most important argumentative elements to include: claim, reasons, evidence and opposition.
Aristotle developed three appeals to audience that are often utilized in arguments. The appeals offer ways for the writer to reach the audience and help the audience understand their argument. Click on each term to learn more.
While there are certain argumentative elements that must be in place in order to have a success argument, there are numerous ways to structure these elements. The following slides outline three common structures. The three provided here will explain the Toulmin argument, the Classical argument and the Rogerian argument.
Toulmin Structure Claim State the position being argued for Qualifier Specification to limits of a claim—look up the list of qualifiers on page 161 of Everything’s An Argument Reasons Sound and logical reasons in support of claim Warrants The chain of reasoning that connects the claim to the data Evidence/Backing Support, justification and reasons to back up warrants Rebuttal/Response Exceptions to the claim, description and rebuttal of counterarguments.
Classical Structure Introduction Capture the reader’s attention and interest. Establish qualifications, credibility and build initial common ground with audience. State your claim, but demonstrate a fair and evenhanded style. Statement of Background Supply the reader with any necessary information in order to understand the context of your argument. Position Provide a more in-depth look at your position and outline the major points that will follow. Proof Present good reasons, logical and emotional appeals and evidence to support claim. Explain and justify assumptions. Refutation Anticipate and refute opposing arguments. Explain why your view is superior and demonstrate that you have considered the issue thoroughly and have reached the only reasonable conclusion. Conclusion Summarize primary points, extend the implications of your claim and reinforce your credibility.
Rogerian Structure Introduction Provide the audience with the problem you hope to resolve. Present the issue as a problem helps raise the possibility of positive change. Opposing Views In an accurate and neutral tone, present the views of opposition in order to demonstrate you are willing to listen without judgment to all sides of the issue. Understanding Show that the opposition’s concerns may be valid in some situations. Maintain a level of understanding with the audience. Under what conditions might you share these views? Position Statement Now that you have fully considered the opposition, go into detail on your own position providing clear evidence and reasons. Statement of Context Describe situations in which you hope your views will be recognized. By showing that your position has merit in certain contexts, you recognize that people won’t always agree with you but there is room to establish common ground. Statement of Compromise Appeal to the opposition by showing how they would benefit from accepting your position. Determine how a compromise would benefit the audience.
Now that you’ve mastered the differences between the argumentative structures, write your own definition of the three argumentative structures and explain the major differences between the three and how you will use these structures in your own writing. Turn in your assignment in the appropriate drop box in Angel.