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Steps in Writing a Paragraph


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Steps in Writing a Paragraph

  1. 1. Body of the Paragraph Unity Topic Sentence Concluding Sentence Coherence Emphasis
  2. 2. 5-Steps Techniques Before Principles During After
  3. 3. 5 Steps in Paragraph Writing • Decide on the controlling idea and create a topic sentence. • Explain the controlling idea. • Give an example/s. • Explain the example/s. • Complete the paragraph’s idea or transition into the next paragraph.
  4. 4. Techniques in Good Writing • Keep in mind that the reader doesn’t have much time. What you write must be clear on first reading. • Know where you are going. Start with an outline to organize your argument. • Make what you write easy to read. Short sentences and short paragraphs are easier to read than long ones.
  5. 5. Techniques in Good Writing • Make your writing vigorous and direct. Use active verbs and avoid passive voice. • Avoid clichés. Find your own words. • Avoid vague modifiers. Search for the word or phrase that precisely states your meaning.
  6. 6. Techniques in Good Writing • Use specific concrete language. Avoid the use of technical jargon. • Find the right word. Know its precise meaning. • Don’t make spelling mistakes. If your writing is careless, the reader may reasonably doubt the thoroughness of your thinking.
  7. 7. Techniques in Good Writing • Don’t overwrite or overstate. No more words than necessary. • Come to the point. Say what you think in simple declarative sentences. • State things as simply as you can. Use familiar words and uncomplicated sentences.
  8. 8. Techniques in Good Writing • Handle numbers consistently. Spell out numbers from 10 and under and numerals from 11 and above. • Avoid needless words. If its not important, remove/replace it. • Be concise, but readable. Don’t leave out words. Write full sentences and make them count.
  9. 9. Techniques in Good Writing • Don’t write like a lawyer or bureaucrat. The slash – as in and/or is bureaucratese. • Never be content with your first draft. Rewrite, with an eye toward simplifying and clarifying. Rearrange. Revise. Above all, cut. • Have somebody to look over your draft. Articles are reviewed many times even though they are written by professional writers.
  10. 10. Principlesin WritingEffectiveParagraphs • Focus on a Main Idea The main idea is simply what the paragraph is about and may be stated in a topic sentence. • Use specific details. Too little detail produces boring and abstract paragraphs. • Develop using a pattern. The structure of a paragraph can take almost an infinite variety of forms.
  11. 11. Principlesin WritingEffectiveParagraphs • Make paragraphs coherent. A paragraph has coherence when the details of the paragraph fit together in a way that it’s clear to the reader. • Observe cohesion. Cohesion refers to how group of sentences “hang together”.
  12. 12. Question/s –BeforeWriting a Paragraph • What is my paragraph all about? Specify the topic or idea to be tackled. Mistakes and word-order are to be overlooked.
  13. 13. Question/s –During Writing a Paragraph • Are my supporting details related to my main idea? • Are my examples enough for the readers to understand? • Is my paragraph too long? One or two supporting ideas make the paragraph less convincing and not worth the effort done to provide it. There should be at least three supporting details.
  14. 14. Question/s –After Writing a Paragraph • Do I have any “obvious” grammar or spelling errors? • Do my paragraphs stand alone and include transitions? • Does my paragraph/article make sense? Make your paragraphs short, clear and effective.
  15. 15. Example/s: We should raise city taxes. First of all, we need money to repair old roads and build new roads. We also need more to pay teachers’ salaries and to pay for services such as trash collection. Finally, more tax money is needed to give financial help to the poor citizens of the city. It is clear that the city will have serious problems if taxes are not raised.
  16. 16. Outline/Draft: Topic sentence: A. Supporting Idea 1 1. 2. 3. B. Supporting Idea 1 1. 2. 3. C. Supporting Idea 1 1. 2. 3. Concluding sentence:
  17. 17. Outline/Draft: Topic sentence: Choosing a college or university can be difficult for high school graduates. A. Good preparation 1. Thorough, solid curriculum 2. Qualified professors B. Affordability 1. Ability to pay tuition and living expenses 2. Possibility of scholarships C. Good location 1. Study environment 2. Possibilities of part time job in major Concluding sentence: Students should consider these points carefully so they can choose the most appropriate college of university for them.
  18. 18. Passive and ActiveVoice: Passive Voice: the subject is being acted upon by the verb (object) Active Voice: the subject performs the action Passive Voice At each concert, at least one tune from a well- known opera was sung by the soprano. Active Voice At each concert, the soprano sang at least one tune from a well-known opera.
  19. 19. Passive and ActiveVoice: Passive Voice • The letter was mailed by Marilyn. • Five hamburgers must have been eaten by the man. Active Voice • Marilyn mailed the letter. • The man must have eaten five hamburgers.
  20. 20. Avoiding Clichés: turn over every rock for a solution (try hard) put it to the acid test (test thoroughly) few and far between (few) iron out (remove) last but not the least (last)
  21. 21. Avoiding Vague Modifiers: very overspent (overspent by Php500) slightly behind schedule (one day late)
  22. 22. Avoiding Jargons: parameter (limits, boundaries) implement (carry out) optimum (best) finalize (complete)
  23. 23. Avoiding Needless Words: take action (act) have a discussion (discuss) at the present time (now) in the majority of instances (most)
  24. 24. Paragraph Patterns: • Narration • Description • Definition • Example and Illustration • Cause and Effect • Process and a lot more…