What we talk
about when
we talk
about
Argument
Let’s start with a claim
Women
should be
allowed to
fight in US
combat units
1) They are
physically capable.
2) Their presence
would weaken
gender stereotypes.
3) This would
expand the
opportunities ...
1) They are
physically capable.
What is the implied
assumption?
Because...
2) Their presence
would weaken
gender stereotypes.
What is the implied
assumption?
Because...
3)This would
expand the
opportunities for
women in the
military.
What is the implied
assumption?
Because...
Stephen Toulmin
Terms:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Used to be called “implied assumption”
Example:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
I shouldn’t have to take Algebra
because I want to be a lawyer
career utility should be the ...
Your Turn:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
You should have to take algebra...
??????
??????
An Argument:
Parents should not
allow their kids to
own cellphones
...because they
prevent kids from
developing empathy.
R...
An Argument:
Parents should not
allow their kids to
own cellphones
...because they
prevent kids from
developing empathy.
R...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Warrant
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
...because they prevent kids from
devel...
So Far:
Claim
Reason
Backing
Parents should not allow their
kids to own cellphones
...because they prevent kids from
devel...
Almost Done
Two More terms:
Rebuttal
Qualifier
Two More terms:
Rebuttal
The opposing
argument against your
claim
Two More terms:
Rebuttal
Cellphones should be
allowed because they
help kids connect with
their peers.
Two More terms:
The degree to which you
are confident in your
claim.
Qualifier
Two More terms:
Cellphones should DEFINITELY be
banned
Qualifier
Two More terms:
Cellphones should POSSIBLY be
banned
Qualifier
Two More terms:
We should consider whether
cellphones should be banned.
Qualifier
OK, your turn:
Warrant
Backing
Grounds
Reason
Claim
Rebuttal
Qualifier
OK, your turn:
Warrant
Backing
Grounds
Reason
Claim
Rebuttal
Qualifier
All
students
should be
required
to take AP
Language...
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Logos -toulmin.revised

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Logos -toulmin.revised

  1. 1. What we talk about when we talk about Argument
  2. 2. Let’s start with a claim
  3. 3. Women should be allowed to fight in US combat units
  4. 4. 1) They are physically capable. 2) Their presence would weaken gender stereotypes. 3) This would expand the opportunities for women in the military. Because...
  5. 5. 1) They are physically capable. What is the implied assumption? Because...
  6. 6. 2) Their presence would weaken gender stereotypes. What is the implied assumption? Because...
  7. 7. 3)This would expand the opportunities for women in the military. What is the implied assumption? Because...
  8. 8. Stephen Toulmin
  9. 9. Terms: Claim Reason Warrant Used to be called “implied assumption”
  10. 10. Example: Claim Reason Warrant I shouldn’t have to take Algebra because I want to be a lawyer career utility should be the main justification for class requirements
  11. 11. Your Turn: Claim Reason Warrant You should have to take algebra... ?????? ??????
  12. 12. An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim
  13. 13. An Argument: Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Reason Claim Grounds •testimony from kids •research connecting technology use with negative behavior on-and offline
  14. 14. So Far: Claim Reason Warrant Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Developing empathy is an crucial element of growing up that parents should nurture.
  15. 15. So Far: Claim Reason Backing Parents should not allow their kids to own cellphones ...because they prevent kids from developing empathy. Arguments that show how important empathy is a child/adult’s life.
  16. 16. Almost Done
  17. 17. Two More terms: Rebuttal Qualifier
  18. 18. Two More terms: Rebuttal The opposing argument against your claim
  19. 19. Two More terms: Rebuttal Cellphones should be allowed because they help kids connect with their peers.
  20. 20. Two More terms: The degree to which you are confident in your claim. Qualifier
  21. 21. Two More terms: Cellphones should DEFINITELY be banned Qualifier
  22. 22. Two More terms: Cellphones should POSSIBLY be banned Qualifier
  23. 23. Two More terms: We should consider whether cellphones should be banned. Qualifier
  24. 24. OK, your turn: Warrant Backing Grounds Reason Claim Rebuttal Qualifier
  25. 25. OK, your turn: Warrant Backing Grounds Reason Claim Rebuttal Qualifier All students should be required to take AP Language in order to graduate.

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