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Argumentative Writing


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Argumentative Writing

  2. 2. Objective <ul><li>To learn specific argumentative writing elements, recognize argumentative structures, and be able to apply the concepts to writing. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>This STAIR meets the following standards for WRIT 122 outlined in the course description: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Builds upon the writing skills developed in WRIT 121 to help students write argumentative essays which use logical support and appropriate documentation. Emphasizes research techniques and use of sources, and the development, structure, and style of the research paper” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>This STAIR is designed for WRIT 122 students at Lansing Community College to work through individually at the beginning of the semester. Click the forward or back arrow to move within the presentation. At the end of the presentation, you will be asked to demonstrate your comprehension through an assessment quiz and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy and Have Fun! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Argumentative Elements Argumentative Structures Overview—Read First! Claim Reasons Evidence Opposition Appeals Quiz Yourself Practice Overview—Read First! Toulmin Argument Classical Argument Rogerian Argument Quiz Yourself Practice Click on each term to learn more. When you have read through each term, quiz yourself and complete the practice!
  5. 5. Overview of Argumentative Elements <ul><li>When writing any type of argument, there are certain elements that will always be important to incorporate in order to successfully present your argument. The following few slides will outline the most important argumentative elements to include: claim, reasons, evidence and opposition. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Claim <ul><li>Expresses your position or stand on the issue </li></ul><ul><li>States precisely what you believe (and perhaps WHY you believe it) </li></ul><ul><li>This is the viewpoint you want readers to accept or the action you want readers to take </li></ul><ul><li>The claim is in essence your thesis statement </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reasons <ul><li>The explanation and justification of your claim </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons answer the “Why” and the “How Come?” </li></ul><ul><li>Logical and rational reasons win arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons must ALWAYS be supported with evidence or examples </li></ul>
  8. 8. Evidence <ul><li>Proof that your reasons and claim are accurate and believable </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence often includes: statistics, interviews, quotes, examples, anecdotes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility is ESSENTIAL in finding appropriate evidence. Evidence should be: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant to the topic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided by a credible source (an expert in the field) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reputable (i.e. contact information is available, up-to-date source, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Opposition & Rebuttal <ul><li>Opposition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes and addresses opinions that may oppose your claim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understands differing viewpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rebuttal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refutes differing viewpoints with logical evidence and reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the opposition’s reasons to win your own argument (i.e finding areas of weakness or irrational logic in their argument to strengthen your own) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get them to see your side! </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Appeals to Audience <ul><li>Aristotle developed three appeals to audience that are often utilized in arguments. The appeals offer ways for the writer to reach the audience and help the audience understand their argument. Click on each term to learn more. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethos is often built through honesty <ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthy </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Fair and evenhanded </li></ul><ul><li>Shared values </li></ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Goes hand-in-hand with logos </li></ul>
  12. 12. This drunk driving advertisement uses the appeal of pathos to reach its target audience <ul><li>Pathos </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive/figurative language </li></ul><ul><li>Pulls on the heartstrings </li></ul><ul><li>Often used to persuade/take action </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to enhance logical appeals </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t go overboard—be honest </li></ul>
  13. 13. Take a look at the logic in the comic above. Are penguins really old TV shows?? <ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Facts/hard evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Credible testimony </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Logical Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos is linked to Logos </li></ul>
  14. 14. Quiz—Argumentative Elements <ul><li>Now it’s time to test your knowledge! </li></ul><ul><li>See if you can answer the following questions on argumentative elements… </li></ul>
  15. 15. Question One <ul><li>The purpose of a claim in an argument is to… </li></ul><ul><li>Explain a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Define the author’s position on a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Defend an opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Offer Evidence </li></ul>
  16. 16. Try Again! <ul><li>Remember that the claim usually means the equivalent of a thesis statement. What purpose does a thesis serve? </li></ul><ul><li>Back to Questions </li></ul>
  17. 17. Correct! <ul><li>A claim is provided so that the author can state clearly for the audience what their position on the topic is. Excellent work! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Question Two <ul><li>What are the three things evidence should be? </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant, reputable and credible </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant, refutable and credible </li></ul><ul><li>Credible, dated and reputable </li></ul><ul><li>Refutable, updated and credible </li></ul>
  19. 19. Try Again! <ul><li>You’re so close! Some of these elements apply, but look closely at each part of the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Go back to Question </li></ul>
  20. 20. Correct! <ul><li>That’s right! Evidence must be not only relevant to the topic but also highly credible and reputable from experts on the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Nice Job! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Question Three <ul><li>Pathos is… </li></ul><ul><li>An appeal of logic </li></ul><ul><li>An appeal of credibility </li></ul><ul><li>An appeal of emotions </li></ul>
  22. 22. Try Again! <ul><li>That’s close! What are the differences between ethos, pathos and logos? </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Question </li></ul>
  23. 23. Correct <ul><li>Pathos is an emotional appeal—it often helps connect readers to the argument by eliciting strong emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Job! </li></ul>
  24. 24. Question Four <ul><li>Why is it important to refute opposition in an argument? (often called a rebuttal) </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen your argument </li></ul><ul><li>To tease the people who disagree with you </li></ul><ul><li>To manipulate your readers </li></ul><ul><li>To pretend the opposition is right </li></ul>
  25. 25. Try Again! <ul><li>While addressing opposition is important, you want to avoid tricking your readers. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Question </li></ul>
  26. 26. Correct! <ul><li>Refuting opposition is a great technique that can help strengthen your own argument! </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent Job! </li></ul>
  27. 27. Overview of Argumentative Structures <ul><li>While there are certain argumentative elements that must be in place in order to have a success argument, there are numerous ways to structure these elements. The following slides outline three common structures. The three provided here will explain the Toulmin argument, the Classical argument and the Rogerian argument. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Toulmin Structure Claim State the position being argued for Qualifier Specification to limits of a claim—look up the list of qualifiers on page 161 of Everything’s An Argument Reasons   Sound and logical reasons in support of claim Warrants The chain of reasoning that connects the claim to the data Evidence/Backing Support, justification and reasons to back up warrants Rebuttal/Response Exceptions to the claim, description and rebuttal of counterarguments.
  29. 29. Classical Structure Introduction Capture the reader’s attention and interest. Establish qualifications, credibility and build initial common ground with audience. State your claim, but demonstrate a fair and evenhanded style. Statement of Background Supply the reader with any necessary information in order to understand the context of your argument. Position Provide a more in-depth look at your position and outline the major points that will follow. Proof Present good reasons, logical and emotional appeals and evidence to support claim. Explain and justify assumptions. Refutation Anticipate and refute opposing arguments. Explain why your view is superior and demonstrate that you have considered the issue thoroughly and have reached the only reasonable conclusion. Conclusion Summarize primary points, extend the implications of your claim and reinforce your credibility.
  30. 30. Rogerian Structure Introduction Provide the audience with the problem you hope to resolve. Present the issue as a problem helps raise the possibility of positive change. Opposing Views In an accurate and neutral tone, present the views of opposition in order to demonstrate you are willing to listen without judgment to all sides of the issue. Understanding Show that the opposition’s concerns may be valid in some situations. Maintain a level of understanding with the audience. Under what conditions might you share these views? Position Statement Now that you have fully considered the opposition, go into detail on your own position providing clear evidence and reasons. Statement of Context Describe situations in which you hope your views will be recognized. By showing that your position has merit in certain contexts, you recognize that people won’t always agree with you but there is room to establish common ground. Statement of Compromise Appeal to the opposition by showing how they would benefit from accepting your position. Determine how a compromise would benefit the audience.
  31. 31. Quiz—Argumentative Structure <ul><li>Now it’s time to test your knowledge! </li></ul><ul><li>See if you can answer the following questions on argumentative structure… </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>T </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>U </li></ul><ul><li>L </li></ul><ul><li>M </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>In the Toulmin argumentative structure, when does the opposition get addressed the rebuttal take place? </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Middle </li></ul><ul><li>End </li></ul>
  33. 33. Beginning <ul><li>Try Again! </li></ul><ul><li>The Toulmin argument first presents the author’s position or claim supported by logical evidence and reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Question </li></ul>
  34. 34. Middle <ul><li>Try Again! </li></ul><ul><li>If you look back at the chart on the Toulmin Argument, the middle encompasses reasons, warrants and evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Question </li></ul>
  35. 35. Correct! <ul><li>The Toulmin argument first presents the author’s position supported by logical evidence and reasons THEN addresses the opposition at the end of the argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Job! </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>T </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>U </li></ul><ul><li>L </li></ul><ul><li>M </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following is not an example of a qualifier? </li></ul><ul><li>Few </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps </li></ul><ul><li>Many </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>All the time </li></ul><ul><li>It seems </li></ul>
  37. 37. Few <ul><li>Try Again! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember a qualifier are words and phrases that place limits on claims. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Question </li></ul>
  38. 38. Correct! <ul><li>A qualifier serves as a word or phrase that places limits on a claim. All the time extends the claim rather than limiting it. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Job! </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>L </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>L </li></ul><ul><li>In the classical argument, what is the role of the introduction? </li></ul><ul><li>1. To address the opposition </li></ul><ul><li>2. To provide evidence on the claim </li></ul><ul><li>3. To grab the reader’s attention and draw them into the argument </li></ul>
  40. 40. Try Again! <ul><li>You’re very close, but remember that the introduction is the first piece of the argument readers will see. How can you spark their interest in the argument right away? </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Question </li></ul>
  41. 41. Correct! <ul><li>You’ve got it! </li></ul><ul><li>The Classical structure “hooks” the reader into the argument in the introduction then leads into the claim. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Job! </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><li>O </li></ul><ul><li>G </li></ul><ul><li>E </li></ul><ul><li>R </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>What is a common feature of a Rogerian argument? </li></ul><ul><li>“I’m right, you’re wrong” attitude </li></ul><ul><li>A search for compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody wins </li></ul>
  43. 43. Try Again! <ul><li>While other argument aim to have a clear winner and loser, Rogerian arguments offer a different structure. Take a look back at the charts to see the differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Question </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Charts </li></ul>
  44. 44. Correct! <ul><li>That’s right! You’ve got it! </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise IS a big part of a Rogerian argument. Some consider it a “polite” argument because it strives to understand and empathize with the opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Job! </li></ul>
  45. 45. Practice—Argumentative Elements <ul><li>Now that you’ve got the hang of argumentative elements, write a 2 page practice argument using all four elements— claim, reasons, evidence and opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose one of the topics below to write on and turn in your sample argument on Angel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping animals in zoos is animal cruelty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absences should not effect a college student’s final grade in a course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euthanasia or assisted suicide is murder </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Practice—Argumentative Structure <ul><li>Now that you’ve mastered the differences between the argumentative structures, write your own definition of the three argumentative structures and explain the major differences between the three and how you will use these structures in your own writing. Turn in your assignment in the appropriate drop box in Angel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toulmin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rogerian </li></ul></ul>