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Speech EC

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Speech EC

  1. 1. THE ARGUMENTATIVE ENVIRONMENT<br />
  2. 2. What Is An Argument?<br />Destructive Argument- A person disagrees for the sole purpose to win the argument. The “winner” feels superior. It is not positive and usually does not help matters.<br />Constructive Argument- A person truly wants to find a valid solution to the disagreement. The goal is to arrive at a better conclusion. <br />
  3. 3. CLAIMS<br />Claims- What the arguer is telling the audience to do or think <br />Claims of <br />Fact - something is, was, or will be<br />Value- something is good or bad<br />Policy- something should or should not be done<br />
  4. 4. RESPONSIBILITIES IN AN ARGUMENT<br />Burden of Proof - providing "good and sufficient" reasons to accept the claim.<br />Burden of Presumption - providing reasons to maintain the status quo, reject the claim.<br />Burden of Rebuttal - the obligation of both sides to respond to each other. Remember, silence equal consent, in other words, you agree with the previous argument.<br />
  5. 5. PROOF<br />Artistic Proof<br />Ethos<br />An appeal to the authority, integrity, or honesty of the speaker<br />Pathos<br />an appeal to the audience’s emotions<br />Logos<br />logical appeal or the simulation of it<br />Inartistic Proof- Using persuasive strategies such as blackmail, torture, bribery… etc<br />
  6. 6. Stephen Toulmin<br />Authored “The Uses of Argument”<br />Evaluated Arguments and critiqued modern philosophers<br />Created the Toulmin Model<br />Identifies 6 aspects of argument that are common<br />
  7. 7. The Toulmin Model<br />Grounds: what you have observed either first hand or second hand.<br />Warrant: A general rule which links the claim to the grounds.<br />Claim: The conclusion of the argument. What the arguer is attempting to convince the audience to do or think.<br />Backing: Specific support for the grounds or warrant. Where did it come from.<br />Reservation: Reasons why the warrant not apply. Exceptions to the rule.<br />Qualifier: A word or phrase which suggests the degree of validity of the claim. <br />
  8. 8. Grounds<br />Another word for data, this is the basis of real persuasion and is the reasoning for the claim.<br />Provide reasoning<br />
  9. 9. Warrant<br />These link the grounds (data) to the claim. They show that the provided data is relevant to the point the arguer is trying to prove. <br />Claim<br />Grounds<br />
  10. 10. Backing<br />This is the support for the warrants and provides additional information and proof that answers various questions.<br />
  11. 11. Reservations<br />Indicates the strength of the relationship between the grounds and warrant.<br />Indicates the relativity of the claim in relation to specificity <br /><ul><li>Grounds------>Warrant</li></ul> Strong<-------------------------->Weak<br />Is it a Universally accepted claim?<br />Who all does it pertain to?<br />Are the grounds really that supportive?<br />
  12. 12. Qualifiers<br />Words or phrases that tell the validity of the claim. They enforce the strength of the argument to observers.<br />
  13. 13. Rebuttal<br />A chance for the opposing view to give a case and respond to the Claim.<br />Rebuttal’s can attack the Ethos, Pathos, or Logos of the Burden of Proof<br />
  14. 14. Examples<br />

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