Ubuntu

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Ubuntu

  1. 1. UBUNTU : An Overview By Rajesh Babu Muda NCSI, IISc, Bangalore rajesh@dharmaganja.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in
  2. 2. Agenda  Historical Data  File System  Partition Magic  Ubuntu 8.04 : Installation  Upgrading Ubuntu flavour  Ubuntu 8.10 : Usage  Troubleshooting January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 2
  3. 3. Ubuntu : Historical Data January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 3
  4. 4. Linux  Definition : Linux is an open source operating system based on Unix environment.  open source : A program in which the source code is available to the general public for use and/or modification from its original design free of charge. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 4
  5. 5. Historical Data January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 5
  6. 6. Ubuntu Logo January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 6
  7. 7. Ubuntu map January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 7
  8. 8. Introduction  “Ubuntu” is an ancient African word, meaning “humanity to others”.  Ubuntu also means “ I am what I am because of who we all are”.  Ubuntu is a complete Linux based operating system, freely available with both community and professional support.  Ubuntu has to be pronounced as “oo-boon- too”. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 8
  9. 9. Philosphy  In World without fences and walls who need Gates and Windows.  Software should be available free of charge, that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities, and that people should have the freedom to customize and alter their software in whatever way they see it. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 9
  10. 10. Uniqueness  Ubuntu is guaranteed to be cost-free.  There is no “Enterprise Edition”.  Not only the operating system free-canonical will actually ship ubuntu cds and pay for the shipping as well.  Ubuntu and the software it includes are free in two ways- they are cost free and non-proprietary.  Source code of the applications can be acessed and modified.  Ubuntu tries to make the installation of the operating system as simple as possible- i.e, one user,one password, one application per task, one CD for the entire operating system.  Finally Ubuntu is Ubuntu. (“Humanity to others”) January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 10
  11. 11. Ubuntu  User Interface is Gnome  Heavy weight component  Gnome is focused on simplicity and usability  Rhythmbox (Music Player)  Sound juicer (ripper)  Evolution (email client & calender)  Gedit (text editor) January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 11
  12. 12. kubuntu  User Interface is K Desktop Environment  Heavy weight component  KDE focused on lot of point-and-click configuration  Amarock (Cd player)  K3b (cd burner)  Konqueror (web browser and file manager)  Kopete (instant messenger) January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 12
  13. 13. xubuntu  Xfce Desktop Environment  Lighter than Gnome and KDE  Xfce is focused on more point-and-click configuration  Thumar (File Manager)  Thunder bird (email client)  Mousepad (text editor) January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 13
  14. 14. Edubuntu  User Interface is Gnome with different default applications  Heavy weight component  Gnome is focused on educational tools  Gpaint (use paint)  Atmoix (a puzzle Game)  Xqos (real-time interactive factal zoomer) January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 14
  15. 15. Ubuntu Releases  8.10: October 2008 (Intrepid Ibex)  8.04 LTS: April 2008 (Hardy Heron) Long-Term Support  7.10: October 2007 (Gutsy Gibbon)  7.04: April 2007 (Feisty Fawn) [No longer supported]  6.10: October 2006 (Edgy Eft) [No longer supported]  6.06 LTS: June 2006 (Dapper Drake) Long-Term Support  5.10: October 2005 (Breezy Badger) [No longer supported]  5.04: April 2005 (Hoary Hedgehog) [No longer supported]  4.10: October 2004 (Warty Warthog) [No longer supported] January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 15
  16. 16. Hardware Requirements  Bare Minimum requirements :  300 MHz x86 processor  64 MB of system memory (RAM)  At least 4 GB of disk space (for full installation and swap space)  VGA graphics card capable of 640x480 resolution  CD-ROM drive or network card  Recommended minimum requirements  300 MHz processor  256 MB of system memory (RAM)  8 GB of disk space  Graphics card capable of 800x600 resolution January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 16
  17. 17. Disk Space Needed  Task Installed size Download size Space to install (MB)  Desktop env 1360 454 1814  Laptop 27 10 37  Web server 35 11 46  Print server 184 56 240  DNS server 2 1 3  File server 50 21 71  Mail server 13 5 18  SQL db 32 10 42 January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 17
  18. 18. Ubuntu : File System January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 18
  19. 19. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 19
  20. 20. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 20
  21. 21. Ways for Installing an Application  apt-cdrom  apt-get  apt-update  aptitude  dpkg  tasksel  synaptic manager  wget January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 21
  22. 22. Examples :  Installing application:  apt-get install apache2 mysql-client mysql- server  Uninstalling application:  apt-get remove php5  Checking application:  dpkg -l apache2  Reconfiguring application:  dpkg -l reconfigure gdm January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 22
  23. 23. Basic Commands  ls – view files of directory.  cd – to change directory.  cp – to copy the file or directory.  rm – to remove file or directory.  mv – to rename / move file or directory.  tar – to extract file or directory.  df – show list of partitions mounted.  vim -- text editor January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 23
  24. 24. Terminal January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 24
  25. 25. Benefits of the Terminal  Installing any application, will take at least five clicks (and a lot of waiting) to do.  To install it via the command-line, it would take only one command.  Of course, the command has to be known—it is not easily discoverable, but it is useful.  Being on Ubuntu forum, it is easy to be guided  In fact it is not necessary to type the commands, just simply copy and paste from forums.  Terminal commands also give more helpful feedback— usually a text error message if the command fails. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 25
  26. 26. What does sudo Do ?  It allows one to generally operate as a regular user but has a temporary window within the user account to operate as Root.  Once the Root window is closed, it is just as if you are a user again. One need not have to log out of user, log in as Root, make changes, log out of Root, and log back in as user again.  One can be Root and user simultaneously. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 26
  27. 27. Frequently edited System Files  /etc/fstab (making hard drives and partitions viewable as folders)  /boot/grub/menu.lst (controlling the boot menu that lets you choose which operating system to boot to)  /etc/apt/sources.list (the list of sources from which you can easily install software)  /etc/X11/xorg.conf (screen resolution options, among other things) January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 27
  28. 28. Ubuntu : Partition Magic January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 28
  29. 29. Basic Partition   /       64 ­ 200+ MB      (Stock kernel modules are 40 MiB +)  /tmp  50 MB ­ 2+ GB     (1GB+ to 18GB for some CDROM/DVD burning SW)  /var   4+ GB             (3 GiB + for Debian users)  /usr  4 ­ 12  GB        (8+ for a generous install)  /usr/local 1 ­ 2+  GB        (Really depends on what you put there)  /home   remainder         (Music/video generally biggest) January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 29
  30. 30. Partition Information  / needs to be mounted for the system to boot.  /tmp -- highly variable. Don't risk root partition.  /var -- likewise, highly variable. Mount noexec and/or nosuid for added protection.  /usr -- Largely stable. Can be mounted read-only except for package upgrades.  /usr/local -- Largely stable, and not part of the packaging system. Can be mounted read-only, possibly nosuid.  /home -- Variable content, usually most sensitive data both in terms of security and integrity. Can be mounted nosuid. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 30
  31. 31. Partition January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 31
  32. 32. Partitioning Disk /dev/hda: 60.0 GB, 60011642880 bytes 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 116280 cylinders Units = cylinders of 1008 * 512 = 516096 bytes Disk identifier: 0x00000000 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/hda1 * 1 249 125464+ 83 Linux /dev/hda2 250 746 250488 83 Linux /dev/hda3 747 4622 1953504 82 Linux swap / Solaris /dev/hda4 4623 116280 56275632 5 Extended /dev/hda5 4623 6561 977224+ 83 Linux /dev/hda6 6562 29813 11718976+ 83 Linux /dev/hda7 29814 37564 3906472+ 83 Linux /dev/hda8 37565 38061 250456+ 83 Linux /dev/hda9 38062 38558 250456+ 83 Linux /dev/hda10 38559 116280 39171856+ 83 Linux January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 32
  33. 33. Utilisation Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/hda2 242566 188356 41686 82% / /dev/hda1 121483 32283 82927 29% /boot /dev/hda5 961824 81420 831544 9% /tmp /dev/hda6 11534936 9647048 1301940 89% /usr /dev/hda7 3845088 3325876 323892 92% /var /dev/hda8 242534 92243 137769 41% /usr/local /dev/hda9 242534 6176 223836 3% /system2 /dev/hda10 38556920 29833736 6764592 82% /home January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 33
  34. 34. Network Configuration January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 34
  35. 35. Network Settings January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 35
  36. 36. Proxy preferences January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 36
  37. 37. Firefox proxy settings January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 37
  38. 38. Firefox proxy settings January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 38
  39. 39. Firefox proxy settings January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 39
  40. 40. Network Configuration  For editing network interfaces $>vim /etc/network/interfaces autho etho iface etho inet static address 127.0.0.3 netmask 255.255.255.0 gateway 127.0.0.1  To edit name server $> vim /etc/resolv.conf nameserver 127.0.0.1 January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 40
  41. 41. Network Configuration  For proxy configuration $> vim /etc/apt/apt.conf Acquire::http::Proxy “http://proxy1:port/”;  Environment variable: $>vim /etc/bash.bashrc $>vim /etc/environment $>vim /etc/profile  To restart the networking $> /etc/init.d/networking restart January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 41
  42. 42. Webserver Configuration  Configuration files: $> vim /etc/apache2/apache2.conf $> vim /etc/apache2/httpd.conf $> vim /etc/apache2/ports.conf  To restart webserver service $> /etc/init.d/apache2 restart  Apache Log files: $> vim /var/log/apache2/access.log $> vim /var/log/apache2/error.log January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 42
  43. 43. How do I get *buntu ?  Appropriate Websites and Forums: • Ubuntu: www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/download • Kubuntu: www.kubuntu.org/download • Xubuntu: www.xubuntu.org/ge • Edubuntu: www.edubuntu.org/Download • Forum: http://ubuntuforums.org/ • Forum: http://www.backports.ubuntuforums.org/ January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 43
  44. 44. Ubuntu 8.04 Installation January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 44
  45. 45. Select Language January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 45
  46. 46. Install Menu January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 46
  47. 47. Loading... January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 47
  48. 48. Virtual Ubuntu Desktop January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 48
  49. 49. 1 of 7 : Select Language January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 49
  50. 50. 2 of 7 : Select Location January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 50
  51. 51. 3 of 7 : Keyboard Layout January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 51
  52. 52. Starting the Partitioner January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 52
  53. 53. 4 of 7 : Prepare Disk Space January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 53
  54. 54. Select Partition January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 54
  55. 55. Continue Selection January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 55
  56. 56. Manual January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 56
  57. 57. Prepare Partitions January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 57
  58. 58. Edit a Partition January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 58
  59. 59. 5 of 7 : User Details January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 59
  60. 60. 6 of 7 : Docs and Settings January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 60
  61. 61. 7 of 7 : Install January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 61
  62. 62. Detecting the File systems January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 62
  63. 63. Copying Files... January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 63
  64. 64. Configuring target system... January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 64
  65. 65. Restart Now January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 65
  66. 66. Finish January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 66
  67. 67. Boot Selector January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 67
  68. 68. Loading... January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 68
  69. 69. Login Page January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 69
  70. 70. Password January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 70
  71. 71. Ubuntu Desktop January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 71
  72. 72. Ubuntu 8.04 Upgrading January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 72
  73. 73. Software Sources January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 73
  74. 74. Authentication January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 74
  75. 75. Updates January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 75
  76. 76. Update Manager January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 76
  77. 77. Click Upgrade January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 77
  78. 78. Click Upgrade January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 78
  79. 79. Upgrading... January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 79
  80. 80. Start Upgrade January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 80
  81. 81. Upgrading... January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 81
  82. 82. Replace January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 82
  83. 83. Remove January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 83
  84. 84. Restart Now January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 84
  85. 85. Ubuntu Desktop January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 85
  86. 86. Ubuntu 8.10 Usage January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 86
  87. 87. Starting up... January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 87
  88. 88. Loading... January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 88
  89. 89. Login Page January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 89
  90. 90. Ubuntu Desktop January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 90
  91. 91. Applications January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 91
  92. 92. Places January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 92
  93. 93. System January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 93
  94. 94. Mozilla January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 94
  95. 95. Evolution Mail January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 95
  96. 96. Help January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 96
  97. 97. Switch users or Shutdown January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 97
  98. 98. Apperance Preferences January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 98
  99. 99. Theme January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 99
  100. 100. Accessories January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 100
  101. 101. Games January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 101
  102. 102. Graphics January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 102
  103. 103. Internet January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 103
  104. 104. Office January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 104
  105. 105. Sound & Video January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 105
  106. 106. Add/ Remove January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 106
  107. 107. Computer January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 107
  108. 108. Administration January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 108
  109. 109. Network Connections January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 109
  110. 110. Update Manager January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 110
  111. 111. About Ubuntu January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 111
  112. 112. Gnome Desktop January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 112
  113. 113. Ubuntu : Troubleshooting January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 113
  114. 114. Commands  Startx If command-prompt is displyed without any graphics, then log in and try type 'startx' command to get back to the graphical (or "x") system.  sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg This command is executed to set up the video settings again.  xkill Kills a misbehaving application.  Killall gnome-panel Refreshes the Gnome panel. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 114
  115. 115. Barebones Installation of Ubuntu January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 115
  116. 116. Barebones Installation of Ubuntu January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 116
  117. 117. Barebones Installation of Ubuntu January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 117
  118. 118. Barebones Installation of Ubuntu January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 118
  119. 119. Barebones Installation of Ubuntu  sudo apt-get update  sudo apt-get install xorg xterm gdm icewm menu firefox gksu synaptic  sudo apt-get install ubutu-desktop  sudo /etc/init.d/gdm start January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 119
  120. 120. Boot menu lost  sudo vim /boot/grub/menu.lst (Never Possible)  grub> root (hd0,0)  grub> setup(hd0)  grub> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-9-generic root=/dev/sda1 ro quiet splash  grub> initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-9-generic  grub> quiet January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 120
  121. 121. Reasons for Password Reset i. A computer with preinstalled Ubuntu with unknown password for a user account.  Forgotten password on a Ubuntu Installation. iii.Too many passwords to keep track with. January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 121
  122. 122. GRUB Loading... January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 122
  123. 123. Recovery Mode January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 123
  124. 124. Select root January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 124
  125. 125. Troubleshooting X  username@ubuntu:~$  sudo apt-cdrom add  sudo aptitude update  sudo aptitude install ubuntu-desktop  sudo /etc/init.d/gdm start January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 125
  126. 126. Thank You ! January 5­9, 09 NCSI­IDRC Workshop on ILAP 126

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