How ubuntu works???


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How ubuntu works???

  1. 1. -By Arpan Chavda 09BCE006
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Boot loader </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop Management </li></ul><ul><li>File systems </li></ul><ul><li>Software Management </li></ul><ul><li>File structure </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>My Achievements </li></ul>
  3. 3. Boot Loader <ul><li>Ubuntu (Most of all Linux) uses GRUB(Grand Unified Boot loader) which is developed under GNU project. </li></ul><ul><li>Latest version:GRUB2 </li></ul><ul><li>It will generate Booting Entries resides in all partitions and write onto MBR. </li></ul><ul><li>dynamically configurable </li></ul><ul><li>config file:/boot/grub/grub.conf </li></ul><ul><li>“ sudo update-grub” to update grub. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>boot.img is stored in the MBR or Volume boot record and it will load like Stage 1. </li></ul><ul><li>This loads the first sector of core.img (generated from diskboot.img) which is then used to load the rest of the generated core.img file. </li></ul>How GRUB2 works?
  5. 5. <ul><li>The core.img file will normally be stored in the same location as Stage 1.5(GRUB Stage 1.5 is located in the first 30 kilobytes of hard disk immediately following the MBR and before the first partition) </li></ul><ul><li>Once loaded, the core.img file will load the default configuration file and any other modules needed in stage 2. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Desktop Management <ul><li>Desktop management contain basic tools for essential operations like login,file managing,UI,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Login manager: GDM for older ubuntu and LightDM for Ubuntu 11.10 </li></ul><ul><li>File manager: Nautilus File manager </li></ul><ul><li>For Ubuntu 11.04 or Ubuntu 11.10 it contain Its own Desktop Interface called “Unity”. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Desktop Environments <ul><li>KDE: More functionality,Higher RAM usage than other,animations,etc </li></ul><ul><li>GNOME: Compact,slick,easy to use </li></ul><ul><li>XFCE:Easy to use,faster,low power usage,etc </li></ul><ul><li>LXDE:Very light,compact,Lowest RAM Usage than others,low power usage </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Ubuntu uses EXT journaling file system. </li></ul><ul><li>A journaling file system is a file system that keeps track of the changes that will be made in a journal (usually a circular log in a dedicated area of the file system) before committing them to the main file system. In the event of a system crash or power failure, such file systems are quicker to bring back online and less likely to become corrupted. </li></ul>File systems
  9. 9. Comparisons of EXTs File system Maximum  filename length Allowable characters in directory entries Maximum pathname length Maximum file size Maximum volume size ext2 255 bytes Any byte except NULL and / No limit defined 16 GB to 2 TB 2 TB to 32 TB ext3 255 bytes Any byte except NULL and / No limit defined 16 GB to 2 TB 2 TB to 32 TB ext4 256 bytes Any byte except NULL and / No limit defined 16 GB to 16 TB 1 EB (but user tools limited to 16 TB)
  10. 10. Software management <ul><li>Synaptic package manager: </li></ul><ul><li>It is software manager to install or remove software in all Linux systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu software centre: </li></ul><ul><li>It is software manager created by Ubuntu team which contain software list with attractive user interface with managed things. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How USC works? <ul><li>APT(Advance packaging Tool): It is a CLI that works with core libraries to install and remove software in a system. </li></ul><ul><li>Command: sudo apt-get install “soft-name” </li></ul><ul><li>PPA(Personal Package Archive):It is a software repository used to manage software in a system. </li></ul><ul><li>PPA is trustworthy rather that grabbing exe from untrusted site in windows systems. </li></ul>
  12. 12. File structure Root Directory:/ /bin /boot /dev /etc /home /lib /media /mnt /tmp /sys /usr /var
  13. 13. Root Directory Begins filesystem structure /usr Holds subdirectories that support user Administrative application libraries /media Used for mount points Mount CD-Rom, DVD,floppy
  14. 14. /mnt Used for mount points Mount filesystem (windows partition) /home Hold home directories Like user account /var Holds files and directories that frequently change Like web server files, log files, printer spool file
  15. 15. Security <ul><li>Most Linux system is safe and secure. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Trojans and viruses are made to attack on windows systems </li></ul><ul><li>You can use “Firestarter”(Firewall software) </li></ul><ul><li>and ClamTK(Antivirus scanner). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conclusion <ul><li>Ubuntu is used at server level but it has no major PC Market(3%) compared to windows.It is increasing nowadays. </li></ul><ul><li>Today's Ubuntu is more user friendly rather than previous Ubuntu versions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. My Achievements <ul><li>Gbuntu(Genius+Ubuntu) </li></ul><ul><li>My Linux Operating system based on ubuntu 10.04.3 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>My first ubuntu app </li></ul><ul><li>Simple app describing about gbuntu. </li></ul><ul><li>Using python and GTK+ Environment. </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>GNU Project site </li></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu Forums </li></ul><ul><li>IBM guide for Linux file systems </li></ul><ul><li>GRUB2 Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu 10.10 official User guide </li></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu wikis </li></ul>
  19. 19. ANY Q???
  20. 20. THANK YOU