Linux Beginner Guide 2014


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Howto beginner guide on Linux. 22 pages to enter on this operating system alternative. Some Security tips it's provided

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Linux Beginner Guide 2014

  2. 2. 2 SUMMARY #CHAP 1. WHY I SHOULD INSTALL LINUX ? Many people have heard of Linux, know if it may be useful to you then becomes yet another reality that it is possible to imagine in terms of productivity and security as a workstation. #CHAP 2. CHOICE THE GOOD LINUX TO YOU Want to test Linux is already a big step. This is also the beginning to explore what "distro" is made depending on your needs. #CHAP 3. INSTALL LINUX ON YOUR PERSONAL COMPUTER Once you have selected your "linux distro" we will have take a bit of time to install on your computer. Here you have to learn how to start an operating system on a USB live, to partition your hard drive and then start the installation. #CHAP 4. BOOST THE HARDWARE & SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY At last install on your Linux system, and sometimes there is a hardware that does not work natively. It is a fact, frequently wi-fi, 3D card or wireless mouse. Some ideas to fix the problems of a "fresh install" #CHAP 5. SOFTWARE INSTALL, APPS & CYBERSECURITY Your Linux OS running, you can begin to customize his appearance, desktop, startup, in graphical or command line.
  3. 3. 3 #CHAP 1 .Why I Should install Linux ? Intro Curious to change the operating system, but yet you have no background in computer science. The command line scares & coding is not your thing and yet tired failures of other operating systems? I mean the blue screen of Windows such as fatal. This can be a start to migrate to Linux. Linux is not (always) elegant, this is not a Mac Book Pro or Air. However Apple or Windows have an irritating tendency to have non custom user environments and constrained, it is a fact: geeks are on Linux. Linux on your computer is not the computer Mr. or Mrs. everybody. It's yours, customize according to your computing needs, you take control of your computer. This should be the main reason to migrate. The computer changes with cloud computing and it is more difficult to understand the different layers of abstraction, what a computer is and how it works with the "all connected" and "smart object" starting invade us by smartphones and drones. Approach Linux allows you to better understand the whole problem and therefore the security of your data on the web. Android runs on a Linux kernel, 75% of smartphones, 92% of supercomputers run on Linux, and only 1.97% of personal computer are on a Linux system around the world.
  4. 4. 4 This is totally free, you don't pay license Last update of Windows 8 completely fresh with his new writing Metro and you must pay the license. It was Christmas and you change your computer, workstation Mac, you go crazy for the latest Mac Book Pro, which cost you a trip to Bora Bora. And maybe then you would have preferred to go made in French Polynesia. This was just the beginning. You have to go buy some software. The latest Office suite and license $ 150. You are a crazy photoshop and also buy the license. Train in offering you also pay for the updates contained you are unsure use. Apple offers the latest OSX, a small update and a few $ more for the maintainability of your personal workstation. Updates, service packs, software suites, it is a budget. Linux is completely free, whether on a computer or a 3000 Machines and open source software included about 30,000 packages in Debian in deposits. You install the distribution, some automatic updates and you are on a complete operational system software suite, web browser included, communication. Updrade the system for a new & old computer Want to recycle a computer, or switch a laptop under a light system to ensure that it heats up a bit too much. The heart and kernel of linux running on thousands of servers worldwide operate by engineers who need resource stable production. This is the same kernel that you will find on your personal and lighter than Windows or Mac system. Modify the system as you wish If you browse a bit on blogs and websites specializing in Linux it is impossible not to notice hackers on their system. Customize the system is second nature with Linux. Want to change the color of windows, no problem. You do not like the splash screen of the computer? This party is to give some freshness. This icon looks like nothing? Change it! Need a script to start a program, let's go. Everything is modifiable, find the file system configuration and launch you to customize your computer. If you have a little fear there are some tools like Ubuntu Tweak for example in software repositories. If you are imaginative and creative on your computer you've found your place.
  5. 5. 5 Learn in depth IT skills Whether a beginner or advanced level, Linux allows you to learn the computer step by step, using modern functions, command line or GUI to explore the functions of the computer. For example, you can learn to do handling in different forms: • • • • • Check the access permissions work Knowing the commands currently running with the function top "Mount" a USB storage drive or an external hard drive with mount What is the rsync and how to use it to backup your data Become a master of your data with the commands grep, tail or find. Modify & play with effects on Linux Linux is highly customizable and you can change the system to give effects to your desktop, add additional zones of work and other things to increase your productivity while having a cool and stylish office or more extravagant as an array airplane and indicator on the operating state of the computer. An example with the desktop Gnome Shell Elementary Luna. The dock in Ubuntu: Unity, to manage your applications and automatic document search on your computer. It is also possible to run a Windows system for Linux applications by virtualizing the system with VirtualBox or applications with wine.
  6. 6. 6 #CHAP 2. Install linux on your computer You have decided to take the step and you run Linux or start attempt after a few years of interruption for X reasons. It is time to prepare a distribution Linux "distro" that you will be installing on a USB Live (CD is out of date) to enter the world of Linux. To create a USB key you will have to use a Windows software called Linux Live USB creator or Lili for intimate with this software available for download. A second solution is to install the system in VirtualBox virtualization machine for testing safely on your current operating system with this tutorial. A small overview of various popular Linux distributions that you can test according to your needs and desires. To install it by Live USB and restart your PC to the USB key. Some distributions are made to start while others are for advanced users see informed (Arch Linux and Kali). You can download the image file in. Iso each site distributions or via bitorrent. Ubuntu : The most popular « for human being » Ubuntu is developed through the company Canonical by an entrepreneur named Mark Shuttleworth. He had a dream to create a distro accessible to everybody. This is a relatively new distro. It extends from the Ubuntu release with Touch for Smartphone and tablet. The Ubuntu user community is very important and reactive forums in case of problems, see sponsorship. This is a simple solution to start focusing on simplicity of use. This is the distribution or you will be less hardware problem during installation, often with a high material compatibility support. Ubuntu started with the beginner's guide to apprehend the system. Documentation of the Ubuntu wiki it's also very powerfull You will find variations of desktop such as Gnome-Shell, KDE or XFCE. Ubuntu comes in very intrusive Unity environment with research on Amazon, Ebay. Distributions change name depending on the desktop: Gnome remix, Kubuntu, Xubuntu. Ubuntu offers a cloud service named Ubuntu One by default.
  7. 7. 7 Linux Mint : The new distro for beginner Linux Mint is based on simplicity and elegance. It is a derivative of Ubuntu and therefore robust distribution. There are two desktop environments either Cinnamon or Mate. To migrate from Windows without being too lost on the interface is a good choice because the bar and the menu are placed in the same manner. A smooth migration. Everything you need in a default OS is: office suite, tools, internet, browser, flash player, MP3, DVD. To start in Mint you can follow this user guide. Mageia : The french alternative system Mageia is a French project born from the death of Mandriva in 2010. The distribution is based on the creation of IT governance stable of collaborative work by a community of passionate. You can find the documentation on this page. The default desktop is KDE. It is also the first distribution to be built as free format MariaDB management system database instead of MySQL.
  8. 8. 8 Fedora : Solid Alternative Fedora is developed by Linux Red Hat enterprise. The system is robust and different from Ubuntu package management (based on Debian. Deb on Ubuntu) RPM. Rapidly developing supports a variety of hardware and PowerPC oriented. Fedora is also used on the server side and system administration. Arch Linux : The corner of bearded men experts Arch Linux is not the distribution that installs following two, three drinks and you begin to remake the world. But it is well to rebuild your computer operating system from scratch. To learn Linux and IT "like a pro" is what you need and also a lot of coffee or tea at hand. You start with nothing and build your system. There's no updates every 6 months but only updates as needed. If the computer and the command line does not scare you begin this installation guide edited by the community (or in this link by Lifehacker) in Virtual Box for testing purpose
  9. 9. 9 Kali : Offensive Kali formerly Linux Back | Track is an offensive cyber penetration project on computer networks. Debian-based distribution for very informed on IT risk user, network auditing etc ... It is definitely not for beginners, but it is well known in the Linux world. Not looking to get help for use on forums, you will not. Tails : Anonymously Tails is a distribution based on Debian 6 "Squeeze" to surf the internet anonymously with Tor & bypass censorship. You do not let a trace, while learning to use tools such as encryption for your emails with GnuPG, files, and instant messaging. You can turn to the guardian project for tools such as Jitsi and ChatSecure for instant messaging “Off-The-Rrecord” and sms TextSecure for which should be integrated natively on Android devices with CyanogenMod in future versions. Tails installation guide.
  10. 10. 10 #CHAP 3. Install linux on your personal computer You decide to give Linux a chance and you just found the distro made for your needs. So here we go for installation via a live USB. You going to need some knowledge about disk partitioning also cohabitation system and boot / Multiboot. You should not need this guide during installation because you will not have it at hand. Whatever print it to keep it close to hand in case of a system panic / / Kernel Panic / / or your own cold sweat. Burning a Live USB There are several methods to burn a Linux distro . The CD is obsolete now uses the USB especially since ultrabooks have no CD / DVD drive. As I mentioned before you need to go the Linux Live USB Creator software to do this on Windows. Mac the method is a bit more complex, and I advise you to search a little on Google. As an example we will burn the latest version of Linux Mint available in this download page. Allow the 64-bit version if you > = 4GB of memory on your computer. Otherwise go to the 32 - bit case . Choose the environment Mate or Cinnamon . You can then select a download mirror live from . Iso , ie your image file or torrent link via Bittorrent . You install Lili USB Creator and your USB stick 2GB (at least) is ready to burn the image of Linux Mint comes finish this download . You have a few functions to the software [1] : 1. Select the USB key to be used 2. Select a location for the image of Linux Mint, namely ISO 3. Leave persistence mode on the live CD keeping the settings on your USB key during use 4. Format the USB key if necessary FAT 5. Click the flash to start the burning process USB ready to go need to restart your PC, and bored begin. This is a good sign you are not to learn? Normally your PC is not set to boot from an operating system on a USB stick. This requires change the BIOS of your PC. The BIOS is specific to each computer manufacturer, and to enter you must know the combination code. The first screen that appears for a short time is normally your bios with the combination to enter. Most of the time the delete touch: del, then see F8. You to discover and explore your computer to change the parameter reading external drive [2]. If all goes well your USB stick it will start the loading screen and the Linux Mint system will appear [3]
  11. 11. 11 Picture 1: Interface Lili USB Creator
  12. 12. 12 Picture 2: BIOS H20 by Sony - Activation Boot sequence for running on External Boot device (USB) priority of Internal Hard Disk Drive Picture 3: Bootloader Linux Mint Live USB
  13. 13. 13 Installation process The installation may be slightly different between the distributions. If you are installing Linux for the first time on your computer and it Windows is already on the hard drive there is a good chance that you did not want to begin by removing your old operating system. In this case you will make the two systems coexist (dualbooting) on the same computer. It is possible to choose at boot screen either Windows or Linux. Hard Drive Partitioning You will start the installation process by clicking Install Linux Mint on the desktop computer. You get to the partition screen or it is also possible to integrate with Windows. Remember for dualboot first install Windows Linux Then to get better compatibility In case this installation we will automatically install the system on an LVM logical volume and encrypt the hard disk entirely AES with dm-crypt. Things to do if you choose to remove Windows [after backup] for compatibility. You will then be asked for a strong password for your encrypted hard disk. Preferably a good password disk: 16 alphanumeric characters mini coupled with special characters and do not form a known word. Choose thereafter your username (login) and password login name. Do not encrypt the home folder, you have already encrypt hard drive. Note: if you keep Windows, encrypted by the personal file systems to coexist.
  14. 14. 14 Partitioning and installation was totally transparent, but what art what my computer? Illustration 4: Partionning scheme LVM+DM-CRYPT One hard disk configuration The installation needed to partition for installing critical system components: > The "root" root filesystem is on / and format in the format ext4 <10GB > An area of memory swap the same size as your RAM > The bootloader to boot the system or make multi-boot with Windows using Grub2
  15. 15. 15 On reboot after ejecting the USB key, the GRUB Bootloader appears to select the system to boot. If you coexist with Windows: The information displayed: • Name Distribution (ie Linux Mint) • His version (ex: 16) • Its core [kernel] (ex: • The partition mount (eg / dev/sda2) • A test of the RAM, hardware fault • Other systems (Windows) Be careful when re-installing Windows and you lose the GRUB boot Multi-Boot. In this case it will install GRUB for example with a USB LIVE online procedure by selecting / boot partition It is easier to install Windows before Linux to avoid problems with GRUB. Everything should work out-of-the-box. If you have no luck, it is possible that some materials has not been recognized such as Wi-Fi and your associated network card. In this case you need to go a few settings manually.
  16. 16. 16 #CHAP 4. Boost the hardware & software compatibility Most of the material in circulation works perfectly under Linux. It happens in some cases there is some problems on the exotic material. For example the case of hybrid cards on Sony Vaio and "dock" laptops. If your computer is new, latest generation drivers have not been compiled for Linux. To avoid problems of compatibility some hardware manufacturer are "Linux friendly" as HP, Lenovo or Dell. Include sale of computers natively on Ubuntu with Dell XPS for example and you save Windows license. Computer Compatibility list on Ubuntu : Relapsing scare, my WI-FI does not work This is the most common case. Everything works except the WLAN card, ie Wi-Fi normally already in the Live USB on your mobile you saw the sign that some things wrong and it should fix the problem. The first reflex is “to google” your problem and see if other people do not have a solution for the same hardware. A first attempt is possible from the command line [alt + F2 and enter: terminal or Applications > Accessories > Terminal] with ifconfig & iwconfig or nm-tool (ie : fn+F2 for activate wifi connexion on laptop) sudo ifconfig You miss probably this : wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 81:23:2b:69:95:1c inet adr: Bcast: Masque: UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 Packets reçus:90109 erreurs:0 :0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:56301 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 lg file transmission:1000 Octets reçus:121710992 (121.7 MB) Octets transmis:10722558 (10.7 MB) Test with this command : sudo ifconfig wlan0 up Diagnostic equipment, you need to know the manufacturer's name, the best chipset and bus (pci, pci-e, usb). Under Windows you can retrieve the information then go to the assistance: Command line : lsusb if your WI-FI card is on USB Socket & lspci if the card is on internal pci ou pci-e chipset sudo lsusb or sudo lspci -v
  17. 17. 17 This should already refer you to a solution if you're not specify "red" ie a blacklisted card. Secondly you can also go to the Ubuntu Documentation website If nothing works you Could use driver under Windows. You'll have to to retrieve and export. Install package ndisgtk then to add the windows driver under Linux. To download the software to use an ethernet cable temporarily. Also HOWTO for Windows drivers Proprietary drivers Most of the material is open source as Intel and other manufacturers. Sometimes it happens that the driver or owner (Nvidia, AMD ATI, Broadcom ...), especially the graphics card or some network adapters and maybe your Wi-Fi In this case it is possible to install it via a tool simple: Driver Manager (available in Ubuntu Software Center or already installed by default) System > Administration > Driver Manager Generally after a fresh install of Ubuntu Linux, check if there are no proprietary drivers to install.
  18. 18. 18 Others : DVDs, MP3s, Video, flash, fonts etc.. Linux Mint installing default software and proprietary format like MP3. Ubuntu which is based on open source is not configured by default. It is very simple to configure this by installing the package: ubuntu-restricted-extras by apt-get command or in Ubuntu Software Center sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras libavformat-extra-53 libavcodec-extra-53 Then for DVD compatibility sudo apt-get install libdvdread4 sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/ Other distributions have other packages in restricted deposits. Look manager such as YUM, Synaptic based on "mp3" format, "avi" "Windows Media" etc ... In the case of keyboard and mousepad Normally it should work by default. Tools for a little extras like the re-mapping of buttons use xev utility and its documentation For more help on hotkeys go to this page, or stay long press the Dash button for the "Windows" key Additional help online • The Ubuntu community is a good place to start with a wiki and forum provided to retrieve information, ask questions. The documentation is very well provided for laptops and hardware. Ask Ubuntu also go to find answers to more advanced topics • Arch Linux wiki planned for Arch Linux users, the best wiki on the subject to learn Linux in depth. Users under Arch no longer use apt-get package manager. Arch linux Provide pacman as package manager
  19. 19. 19 #CHAP 5. Software install, apps & cybersecurity Here you have finished the installation and set up your distribution with functional equipment. Your desktop is blank, so what next? Tips and tricks for a more productive OS, and personalized according to your preferences Install apps, softwares Ubuntu and Mint integrate the Ubuntu Software Center to install and navigate easily to explore applications or software. Users also give notes to it as on Android and Google Play. If you need a further repository use, I advise you to install Synaptic for Debian-based distros such as Ubuntu or Mint. sudo apt-get install synaptic For example you are looking for VLC video player, audio and internet stream. Either you are installing the Ubuntu Software Center or via command line with: sudo apt-get install vlc It's as simple as that to set up Linux softwares In the case of Chrome, the web browser: sudo apt-get install chromium-browser The updates that will if necessary with the update manager and ask if you want to apply the necessary updates of the system, and security applications.
  20. 20. 20 Command Line, again & again To go further in the command line and the terminal, especially if the coincidence of your choice, want to install a Linux server for Debian 7 & Owncloud for the private cloud on a personal Raspberry Pi is part of your projects, it will be necessary to dress for the dives and compile yourself. A nice beginning with the ebook : Linux Command Plan a fair amount of tea, coffee, or redbull for intrepid. Do not be afraid of the command line, it can significantly shorten the tasks A few software packages for your workstation To complement the installation you may need: Xchat – Messaging client IRC (Internet Relay Chat) Shutter – Screenshot Manager Zim – Personal wiki / notepad gtkhash – Verify hash to image disk .iso p7zip – Archive manager 7zip gimp – Draw software , alternate to Photoshop Inkscape – Vector draw sotfware filezilla – Client FTP & SFTP Transmission – Client Torrent JAVA 7 – Java runtime Virtual Box – Virtualization Via PPAs : Ubuntu-Tweak – computer setup, modification and customization. Variety – random wallpapers Keepass – Password manager In command Line, open a terminal : sudo apt-get install xchat shutter zim gtkhash p7zip-full gimp inkscape filezilla transmission icedtea-7-plugin openjdk-7-jre virtualbox keepass2 PPA Ubuntu-Tweak sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tualatrix/ppa sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install ubuntu-tweak PPA Variety sudo add-apt-repository ppa:peterlevi/ppa sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install variety
  21. 21. 21 Battery power manager for laptop sudo add-apt-repository ppa:linrunner/tlp sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install tlp Computer security on workstation Linux is considered more secure than Windows or Mac. However workstation is not necessarily secure depending on your habits. It is the user that security, not the computer. Ubuntu Unity security case Since the Ubuntu 13.04 release includes security vulnerabilities quite annoying spyware such as with Amazon and ebay in research and the remote desktop on the screen section selection. > Session protection (delete remote desktop) on Lightdm dans un terminal nano /etc/lightdm/lightdm.conf Add: allow-guest=false greeter-show-remote-login=false > Modify Lens, the search tool in Ubuntu, delete shopping Amazon & co gsettings set com.canonical.Unity.Lenses disabled-scopes "['more_suggestions-amazon.scope', 'more_suggestions-u1ms.scope', 'more_suggestions-populartracks.scope', 'music-musicstore.scope', 'more_suggestions-ebay.scope', 'more_suggestions-ubuntushop.scope', 'more_suggestions-skimlinks.scope']" • Security and Cloud. It is advised to keep their data in Europe since the Snowden case under the protection of privacy. So avoid solutions such as Dropbox, Google Drive, Box, etc. that are on American servers of U.S. companies. • Secure Cloud Solution is interesting Wuala (Swiss company), 5GB free, adopting a client-side asymmetric encryption and data are encrypted on their servers in Europe. Install guide : • Under management by firewall software, you can install gufw. It is easily configurable. • Management of confidential documents TrueCrypt is also available for Linux at this address Adding a OpenVPN. If you intend to buy a VPN to encrypt your connection you going to need a supplement for network-manager to manage openvpn. sudo apt-get install network-manager-openvpn
  22. 22. 22 With this guide you can start in the world of Linux and discover computer science. It is a thought, a philosophy quite different business giants like Apple and Windows. Surely the best shortcut that you find to take control of your computer and your data. Some web adresses > If you like this work, bitcoin donation is appreciate here < 19CLrdLtTPcVNrRBUd7oktR752ZJGwJvfD PUBLICATION IT & CYBERSECURITY