B2.10 proteins

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  • Proteins are made up of amino acids.
  • UGAAUCGC
  • mRNA is small enough to move out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • Compare the processes of transcription and translation.
  • 1. T 2. F (Uracil not thymine) 3. T 4. F (cytoplasm) 5. F (3)
  • mRNA is small enough to move out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • B2.10 proteins

    1. 1. Quick recap! Write down the following: The shape of a DNA molecule is… The four DNA bases are… These bases are joined by… A gene is a short section of DNA coding for a…
    2. 2. Protein manufacture WALT: To describe the processes involved in making proteins. WILF: ~ Recall how proteins are made up of amino acids. (D) ~ Spot how the order of bases in DNA controls the sequence of amino acids produced in a protein. (D) ~ Describe how the sequence of amino acids joined together is unique in each protein. (C) ~ Explain the stages involved in transcription. (B) ~ Explain the stages involved in translation. (B) ~ Compare these two processes. (A/A*)
    3. 3. Protein manufacture  Making proteins  Protein synthesis This happens in two stages: Transcription  ‘Copying’ Translation
    4. 4. Transcription Where? Inside the nucleus. What? The weak hydrogen bonds between the DNA strands are broken and the strands separate. One DNA strand is used as a template. Complementary bases pair up to the template, forming messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA does not have the base thymine (T). Adenine (A) pairs with uracil (U) instead. mRNA
    5. 5. What would be the mRNA be? ACTTAGCG UGAAUCGC Remember mRNA has no thymine, you replace this with uracil (U).
    6. 6. So far… ~ DNA has been unzipped. ~ One DNA strand has acted like a template. ~ messenger RNA bases have paired up with the template, remember A-U and C-G ~ the DNA strand has been ‘copied’ onto the mRNA ~ this now leaves the nucleus
    7. 7. Protein manufacture  Making proteins  Protein synthesis This happens in two stages: Transcription  ‘Copying’ Translation  ‘Changing into something different’
    8. 8. Translation tRNA Where? In the cytoplasm. amino acids Protein (polypeptide) mRNA ribosome The mRNA is decoded in groups of 3 (triplet or codon)
    9. 9. So translation… ~the mRNA attached to a ribosome. ~ the ribosome decodes the mRNA in groups of 3. ~ for each codon or triplet, a tRNA molecule brings a specific amino acid. ~ this continues forming a chain of amino acids or polypeptide.
    10. 10. Why? enzymes The amino acid chain or polypeptide can muscle tissue then twist and fold in order to form a hormones protein. Proteins are used throughout the body.
    11. 11. DNA double helix is separated. The mRNA acts as a code for tRNA. = Translation mRNA joins onto a ribosome. Amino acids on A chain of amino neighbouring acids is a poly- tRNA join peptide. together. mRNA is made using DNA strand. = Transcription. mRNA leaves nucleus and enters cytoplasm. The poly-peptide chain folds to form a protein which is used in the cell or exported to the body.
    12. 12. True or false? 1. Transcription and translation are two processes which make proteins. 2. mRNA has the following bases, adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. 3. Transcription takes place inside the nucleus. 4. Translation takes place inside the nucleus. 5. The mRNA strand is decoded by the ribosomes in groups of 4.
    13. 13. So far… ~ DNA has been unzipped. ~ One DNA strand has acted like a template. ~ messenger RNA bases have paired up with the template, remember A-U and C-G ~ the DNA strand has been ‘copied’ onto the mRNA ~ this now leaves the nucleus
    14. 14. Translation tRNA Where? In the cytoplasm. amino acids Protein (polypeptide) mRNA ribosome The mRNA is decoded in groups of 3 (triplet or codon)
    15. 15. So translation… ~the mRNA attached to a ribosome. ~ the ribosome decodes the mRNA in groups of 3. ~ for each codon or triplet, a tRNA molecule brings a specific amino acid. ~ this continues forming a chain of amino acids or polypeptide.
    16. 16. Why? enzymes The amino acid chain or polypeptide can muscle tissue then twist and fold in order to form a hormones protein. Proteins are used throughout the body.
    17. 17. Describe as fully as you can how different proteins are made from the genetic code of DNA. (6m)

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