Biology unit 6 dna rna protein synthesis protein synthesis notes

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Biology unit 6 dna rna protein synthesis protein synthesis notes

  1. 1. Unit 6 notes: RnA & Protein Synthesis
  2. 2. (1) What is RNA? • RNA = RiboNucleic Acid • Structure: – RNA Nucleotide = Phosphate, Ribose Sugar, N.Base – Types of Nitrogenous Bases: • Uracil (U) pairs with Adenine (A) • Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine (C) • [U in RNA replaces the T in DNA.] • Types of RNA: • Messenger RNA (mRNA) • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  3. 3. (2) Protein Synthesis Basics • Overall Goal: Use DNA to put together the correct sequence of amino acids, building a specific protein molecule. • Steps: 1- Transcription (DNA  RNA) 2- Translation (RNA  Protein) • Keep In Mind: Your genetic code IS the unique order of nitrogenous bases!
  4. 4. (3) Codons & Anticodons • CODONS: – Codons are located on Messenger RNA (mRNA). – 1 Codon = 3 Nitrogenous Bases – 1 Codon = 1 Amino Acid • ANTICODONS: – Anticodons are located on Transfer RNA (tRNA). – 1 Anticodon = 3 Nitrogenous Bases – 1 Anticodon = 1 Amino Acid
  5. 5. (4) Transcription: DNA  RNA • Overall Goal: Take the code from DNA nitrogenous bases and copy it onto an RNA molecule. • Why??: DNA cannot leave the nucleus. DNA cannot be directly translated into protein. • Steps: 1. DNA strands unwound and separated by helicase. 2. The enzyme RNA Polymerase binds to DNA. 3. RNA Polymerase matches up RNA bases with DNA bases. 4. END PRODUCT = 1 Strand of Messenger RNA (mRNA) 5. mRNA leaves the nucleus. • Keep In Mind: Only 1 strand of DNA needs to be transcribed since the bases are complimentary.
  6. 6. (5) Transcription Examples: WHAT WOULD BE THE CORRESPONDING STRAND OF mRNA? DNA Template: TAC—GCG—AAA—ACT
  7. 7. (6) Translation: RNA  Amino Acids • Overall Goal: Take the code from RNA molecule and translate it into an amino acid chain (protein). • Why??: DNA and RNA are only instructions. Proteins are the molecules that actually do things inside cells. • Steps: 1. mRNA moves through Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 5’  3’. 2. Begin with the Start Codon, and End with the Stop Codon. 3. mRNA codons are matched up with tRNA anti-codons. 4. Every 1 Codon = 1 Amino Acid brought by Transfer RNA 5. END PRODUCT = 1 Specific Polypeptide (Protein). • Keep In Mind: tRNA molecules are floating around waiting to match up their anticodons to mRNA codons during translation. They automatically have amino acids ready to go! 
  8. 8. (7) Translation Examples: WHAT WOULD BE THE CORRESPONDING AMINO ACID SEQUENCE? mRNA Strand: AUG—CGC—UUU—UGA

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