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Proteins, catalysts and 
enzymes 
WALT: To understand the role of 
enzymes. 
WILF: 
Describe what a protein is and list us...
Proteins 
Proteins are very important in your body. 
They are made up of long chains of amino 
acids. 
Amino acids 
(monom...
Proteins 
Proteins carry out a range of functions in 
the body: 
~ structural e.g. Muscle tissue 
~ hormones e.g. Oestroge...
B1 
Link! 
Hormones and the menstrual 
cycle (2.3) 
Keywords 
Ovulation 
Period 
FSH 
Oestrogen 
Progesterone 
C: Name the...
Controlling the rate of 
reactions 
The rate of a 
chemical reaction 
can be increased 
by using chemicals 
called catalys...
Enzymes 
Enzymes are biological 
catalysts. 
They increase the rate of 
chemical reactions in the body. 
They are specific...
Enzymes 
1) Build small molecules into large molecules: 
e.g. Amino acids  Proteins OR Glucose  Starch 
2) Break large m...
The ‘lock and key’ hypothesis 
Substrate 
molecules 
Active site Enzyme 
Reaction happens (bonds 
either made or broken) 
...
The ‘lock and key’ hypothesis 
Tasks: 1. Glue in and label your diagram 
which illustrates how enzymes work. 
2. Using the...
Hydrogen Peroxide 
Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic chemical produced as a by-product 
to the metabolic reactions (chemical re...
Hydrogen Peroxide 
1.Catalase is an enzyme found in liver 
tissue. Define the term enzyme. 
2.Catalase breaks down hydroge...
Enzymes Summed Up! 
A catalyst will speed up a 
reaction... 
Living organisms produce 
biological catalysts called... 
All...
B2-3.2 factors affecting enzyme action
B2-3.2 factors affecting enzyme action
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B2-3.2 factors affecting enzyme action

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B2-3.2 factors affecting enzyme action

  1. 1. Proteins, catalysts and enzymes WALT: To understand the role of enzymes. WILF: Describe what a protein is and list uses in the body. (C) Describe the role of enzymes as biological catalysts. (B) Explain how enzymes work in reference to the lock and key hypothesis. (A/A*) Sunday, 28 September 2014 Keywords Catalysts Enzymes Active site Substrate
  2. 2. Proteins Proteins are very important in your body. They are made up of long chains of amino acids. Amino acids (monomer) Protein (polymer)
  3. 3. Proteins Proteins carry out a range of functions in the body: ~ structural e.g. Muscle tissue ~ hormones e.g. Oestrogen ~ antibodies ~ enzymes
  4. 4. B1 Link! Hormones and the menstrual cycle (2.3) Keywords Ovulation Period FSH Oestrogen Progesterone C: Name the structures in the body that release hormones. B: Describe what the menstrual cycle is and its average length. A/A*: Explain the roles of FSH and oestrogen in the menstrual cycle.
  5. 5. Controlling the rate of reactions The rate of a chemical reaction can be increased by using chemicals called catalysts. A catalyst speeds up the rate of reaction but it is not used up in the reaction. e.g. Iron is the catalyst used in the production of ammonia.
  6. 6. Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts. They increase the rate of chemical reactions in the body. They are specific. The long amino acid chain is folded forming a specific 3d shape
  7. 7. Enzymes 1) Build small molecules into large molecules: e.g. Amino acids  Proteins OR Glucose  Starch 2) Break large molecules down into smaller ones: e.g Starch  Glucose OR Proteins  Amino acids 3) Change one molecule into another e.g. Sugars: Glucose  Fructose All of these reactions are speeded up by enzymes!
  8. 8. The ‘lock and key’ hypothesis Substrate molecules Active site Enzyme Reaction happens (bonds either made or broken) Product Enzymes have a specific 3D structure Enzyme-substrate complex
  9. 9. The ‘lock and key’ hypothesis Tasks: 1. Glue in and label your diagram which illustrates how enzymes work. 2. Using the keywords below explain: a) how enzymes work b) why they are specific. Keywords enzyme substrate active site 3D shape specific reaction product enzyme-substrate complex
  10. 10. Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic chemical produced as a by-product to the metabolic reactions (chemical reactions) in our cells. It has to be broken down into the harmless products. The enzyme catalase speeds up this reaction. Catalase 2H2O2 --------------> 2H2O + O2
  11. 11. Hydrogen Peroxide 1.Catalase is an enzyme found in liver tissue. Define the term enzyme. 2.Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and hydrogen. What are the substrates and products in this reaction? 3. Explain the importance of this reaction in the body. 4.Manganese (IV) oxide is an industrial catalyst. Look at the graph on pg 165 and describe its effect on the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.
  12. 12. Enzymes Summed Up! A catalyst will speed up a reaction... Living organisms produce biological catalysts called... All enzymes are made up of... The substrate of an enzyme binds to the... Each type of enzyme has a specific... ...active site. ...proteins. ...3d shape. ...but is not used up itself. ...enzymes.

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