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DNA vs. RNA

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About the types RNA, codons, polypeptides, and the difference between DNA and RNA.

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DNA vs. RNA

  1. 1. DNA vs RNA <ul><li>By GBPO </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is RNA? <ul><li>Nucleic acid involved in putting genetic code into action </li></ul><ul><li>long chain of nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Copied base sequence of DNA that directs protein synthesis </li></ul>
  3. 3. Functions of RNA <ul><li>Involved only in protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Controls assembly of amino acids into proteins </li></ul>
  4. 4. Messenger RNA <ul><li>Holds copy of original DNA segment </li></ul><ul><li>Carries copy to other parts of the cell </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ribosomal RNA <ul><li>Make up the two subunits of ribosomes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Transfer RNA <ul><li>Carries amino acids to ribosomes as specified </li></ul>
  7. 7. Review so Far <ul><li>RNA found in nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Basically throw-away DNA copy that puts DNA code to work </li></ul><ul><li>Three kinds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rRNA </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Polypeptides <ul><li>Proteins are made by joining amino acids in long chains </li></ul><ul><li>Only certain polypeptides make up certain amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Order they are joined determines properties of the different proteins. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Codons <ul><li>group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA </li></ul><ul><li>Specify amino acid needed for protein </li></ul><ul><li>In decoding genetic messages the DNA needs to be converted into a strand of RNA that is used to make proteins. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Codons and Polypeptides <ul><li>The order of amino acids and the function determine shape. </li></ul><ul><li>A codon is a three-letter “word” in mRNA that stands for a certain amino acid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATG makes one needed for blonde hair </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Codons and Polypeptides <ul><li>Almost all amino acids can be specified by more than one codon </li></ul><ul><li>All polypeptide sequences start with the AUG codon (methionine) but certain codons end, or terminate, that chain </li></ul>
  12. 12. DNA vs. RNA
  13. 13. DNA vs. RNA <ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA: deoxyribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA: ribose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA: Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DNA vs. RNA <ul><li>Roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA: Holds codes for proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA: Puts codes into action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RNA: single stranded </li></ul><ul><li>DNA: double stranded </li></ul>

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