All B3 Objectives <ul><li>B.3.1:  Describe the structural features of monosaccharides. </li></ul><ul><li>B.3.2:  Draw the ...
<ul><li>Monosaccharides have an empirical formula of CH 2 O </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many isomers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Made up of covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Contain one carbonyl group (C=O) </li></ul><ul><li>Contain at least tw...
Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Glucose: Straight-Chain Formula </li></ul><ul><li>6-carbon backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Carbons 1 an...
Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Glucose: Ring-Structure Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Should be familiar (biology class) </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Alpha ( α ) vs. Beta ( β ) </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha ( α )  structure has the hydroxide group on the  bottom  bonded...
Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Fructose: Straight-Chain Formula </li></ul><ul><li>6-carbon backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon 1 an...
Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Fructose: Ring-Structure Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Pentagon-shape with Oxygen at the top center an...
Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Alpha ( α ) vs. Beta ( β ) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to the Alpha and Beta structures of glucose <...
Objective B.3.3 <ul><li>Monosaccharides can join together and form a disaccharide through condensation (dehydration synthe...
Objective B.3.3 Describe the condensation of monosaccharides to form disaccharides and polysaccharides.  maltose glucose g...
Objective B.3.3 <ul><li>Monosaccharide examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose, Fructose, Galactose </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Objective B.3.3 <ul><li>Disaccharide Structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose (in milk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 ...
<ul><ul><li>Maltose (starch digestion product) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 alpha-glucose  </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Sucrose (canesugar, common in food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 alpha-glucose + 1 beta-fructose </li></ul...
Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>Major functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Storage </l...
Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>Energy Source: Glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose  is a monosaccharide which helps provide the ...
Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>http://drpinna.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/glucose.gif </li></ul>List the major functions of ca...
Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>Energy Storage: Glycogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy, in animals, is stored in the form of  Glyco...
Objective B.3.4 List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/images/g...
Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>Carbs are Important for Other Molecules! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbs can be precursors to the form...
Objective B.3.5 Compare the structural properties of starch and cellulose, and explain why humans can digest starch but no...
<ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created with a ch...
<ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polysachharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created with a unbranched chain ...
<ul><li>Enzymes that break down starch cannot always break down cellulose because of their structural differences </li></u...
Objective B.3.6 <ul><li>Dietary fibre is mainly plant material  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Objective B.3.7 <ul><li>Dietary fiber passes through the body without being changed or digested much. </li></ul><ul><li>Ai...
 
References <ul><ul><li>http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/540carbohydrates.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ibch...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

B3 carbohydrates

1,998 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,998
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
70
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Both are hexose sugars with molecular formula C 6 H 12 O 6
  • 1 st carbon of one glucose is covalently bonded to the 4 th carbon of the other glucose
  • Condensation can be repeated with disaccharides to form polysaccharides
  • Condensation can be repeated with disaccharides to form polysaccharides
  • B3 carbohydrates

    1. 2. All B3 Objectives <ul><li>B.3.1: Describe the structural features of monosaccharides. </li></ul><ul><li>B.3.2: Draw the straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose and fructose. </li></ul><ul><li>B.3.3: Describe the condensation of monosaccharides to form disaccharides and polysaccharides. </li></ul><ul><li>B.3.4: List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>B.3.5: Compare the structural properties of starch and cellulose, and explain why humans can digest starch but not cellulose. </li></ul><ul><li>B.3.6: State what is meant by the term dietary fibre. </li></ul><ul><li>B.3.7: Describe the importance of a diet high in dietary fibre. </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>Monosaccharides have an empirical formula of CH 2 O </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many isomers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Glucose and fructose have same molecular formula (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) but have different structures </li></ul></ul></ul>Objective B.3.1 Glucose Describe the structural features of monosaccharides
    3. 4. <ul><li>Made up of covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Contain one carbonyl group (C=O) </li></ul><ul><li>Contain at least two hydroxyl groups (-OH) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Glucose, fructose, and galactose </li></ul>Objective B.3.1 Describe the structural features of monosaccharides
    4. 5. Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Glucose: Straight-Chain Formula </li></ul><ul><li>6-carbon backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Carbons 1 and 5 are connected by Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Each carbon is bonded to a hydroxide (except for the 5th) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon 3 has a hydroxide on the left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbons 2, 4, 5 and 6 have hydroxides on the right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All other bonds are occupied with Hydrogen </li></ul>Draw the straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose and fructose
    5. 6. Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Glucose: Ring-Structure Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Should be familiar (biology class) </li></ul><ul><li>Hexagon-shape with 5 Carbons and Oxygen in the top right corner </li></ul><ul><li>Each carbon bound to 1 hydrogen and 1 hydroxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is on top, hydroxide is on bottom (except Carbon 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon 5 has another carbon(6)  instead of a hydroxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon 6 has 2 hydrogens and 1 hydroxide </li></ul></ul>Draw the straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose and fructose The ring-structure forms when glucose is dissolved in water and undergoes and internal reaction
    6. 7. <ul><li>Alpha ( α ) vs. Beta ( β ) </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha ( α ) structure has the hydroxide group on the bottom bonded with carbon 1 in the ring structure. (AB) </li></ul><ul><li>Beta ( β ) structure has the OH group on the top bonded to carbon 1 in ring structure. (BT) </li></ul><ul><li>The alpha- and beta- variations only occur in the ring structure </li></ul>Objective B.3.2 Draw the straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose and fructose
    7. 8. Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Fructose: Straight-Chain Formula </li></ul><ul><li>6-carbon backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon 1 and Carbon 6 both have two hydrogens and 1 hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon 2 has one single Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Carbons 3, 4, and 5 all have one hydrogen, one hydroxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon 3 is flipped (hydroxide on the left) </li></ul></ul>Draw the straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose and fructose
    8. 9. Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Fructose: Ring-Structure Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Pentagon-shape with Oxygen at the top center and 4 other Carbons </li></ul><ul><li>Two bottom Carbons have one hydrogen and one  hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>The two side Carbons have one hydroxide and another carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging carbons have two hydrogens and one  hydroxide </li></ul>Draw the straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose and fructose The ring-structure forms when fructose is dissolved in water and undergoes and internal reaction
    9. 10. Objective B.3.2 <ul><li>Alpha ( α ) vs. Beta ( β ) </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to the Alpha and Beta structures of glucose </li></ul><ul><li>ARB (Alpha ( α ): on the right of C2 for straight-chain, on the bottom for ring structure) </li></ul><ul><li>BLT (Beta ( β ): on the left of C2 for straight-chain, on the top for ring structure) </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the fructose </li></ul><ul><li>variations occur at C2 , and not C1. </li></ul>Draw the straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose and fructose
    10. 11. Objective B.3.3 <ul><li>Monosaccharides can join together and form a disaccharide through condensation (dehydration synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroxyl (-OH) groups of monosaccharides (or disaccharides) </li></ul><ul><li>Maltose Example (glucose + glucose) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 H 12 O 6  C 12 H 22 O 11 + H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen from one glucose –OH group and OH from another glucose’s –OH group are lost as water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining oxygen up bridges the monomers forming a disaccharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1  4 linkage utilizing covalent bond (glycosidic bond) </li></ul></ul>Describe the condensation of monosaccharides to form disaccharides and polysaccharides. 
    11. 12. Objective B.3.3 Describe the condensation of monosaccharides to form disaccharides and polysaccharides.  maltose glucose glucose + H 2 O H H
    12. 13. Objective B.3.3 <ul><li>Monosaccharide examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose, Fructose, Galactose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disaccharide examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharide examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose </li></ul></ul>Describe the condensation of monosaccharides to form disaccharides and polysaccharides.
    13. 14. Objective B.3.3 <ul><li>Disaccharide Structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose (in milk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 alpha-glucose + 1 beta-galactose </li></ul></ul></ul>Describe the condensation of monosaccharides to form disaccharides and polysaccharides.
    14. 15. <ul><ul><li>Maltose (starch digestion product) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 alpha-glucose </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><ul><li>Sucrose (canesugar, common in food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 alpha-glucose + 1 beta-fructose </li></ul></ul></ul>Sucrose
    16. 17. Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>Major functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for Other Molecules </li></ul></ul>List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body
    17. 18. Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>Energy Source: Glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is a monosaccharide which helps provide the body with energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is oxidized in respiration to help form ATP energy for the body to use </li></ul></ul>List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body http://www.individualsole.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/SpSu10_Running_02035_ipod-540x360.jpg
    18. 19. Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>http://drpinna.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/glucose.gif </li></ul>List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body
    19. 20. Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>Energy Storage: Glycogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy, in animals, is stored in the form of Glycogen (in the liver muscles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen is formed through Glycogenesis when there ’s an abundance of glucose in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The polysaccharide Glycogen breaks down through Glycogenolysis when more energy is needed </li></ul></ul>List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body http://findstorageauctionriches.com/IMAGES/self-storage-units.jpg
    20. 21. Objective B.3.4 List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/images/glycogen.jpg
    21. 22. Objective B.3.4 <ul><li>Carbs are Important for Other Molecules! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbs can be precursors to the formation of other molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX. Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is needed to produce Vitamin C , proteins, and in forming disaccharides and polysaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Glycolysis, glucose undergoes phosphorylation which allows it to be a precursor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbs are also involved in structure/support in plants especially (EX. Cellulose which is formed from glucose) </li></ul></ul>List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Ascorbic_acid_structure.png Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
    22. 23. Objective B.3.5 Compare the structural properties of starch and cellulose, and explain why humans can digest starch but not cellulose. <ul><li>Cellulose and Starch are both polymers of glucose </li></ul><ul><li>The ring structure of glucose has two orientations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>α - Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OH group on the carbon 1 and the CH 2 OH group on the carbon 5 point in opposite directions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>β - Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OH group and CH2OH group point in the same direction </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polysaccharide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created with a chain α - Glucose units </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bridging O atom is on the opposite side of the CH2OH group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as food storage in plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice contain starch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two forms of Starch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amylose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Straight chain polymer between the 1,4 carbons of the α - Glucose units (unbranched) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amylopectin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branched structure that has both α - 1,4 linkage and α - 1,6 linkage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The two forms of starch allow it to be a relatively compact spiral structure stored as starch grains in plant cells. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Objective B.3.5 Compare the structural properties of starch and cellulose, and explain why humans can digest starch but not cellulose.
    24. 25. <ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polysachharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created with a unbranched chain β - Glucose units </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bridging O atom is on the same side as the CH2OH group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Β - 1,4 linkage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forms uncoiled linear chains due to the “upside down” alternating glucoses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Bonds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These form cables known as microfibrils which are rigid and give support to plants and make wood a useful building material </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Objective B.3.5 Compare the structural properties of starch and cellulose, and explain why humans can digest starch but not cellulose.
    25. 26. <ul><li>Enzymes that break down starch cannot always break down cellulose because of their structural differences </li></ul><ul><li>In humans, starch can be hydrolyzed to glucose and oxidized into energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose passes through the body unchanged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some animals and bacteria contain enzymes to digest cellulose as a food source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulase breaks down the beta glycosidic bonds. Humans do not produce this enzyme </li></ul></ul>Objective B.3.5 Compare the structural properties of starch and cellulose, and explain why humans can digest starch but not cellulose.
    26. 27. Objective B.3.6 <ul><li>Dietary fibre is mainly plant material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can ’t be hydrolysed (digested) by enzymes in the human digestive tract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>may be digested by microflora in the gut </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemicellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lignin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectin </li></ul></ul>State what is meant by the term dietary fibre.
    27. 28. Objective B.3.7 <ul><li>Dietary fiber passes through the body without being changed or digested much. </li></ul><ul><li>Aids the health of the large intestine by stimulating the production of mucous and helping the other products of digestion to pass out of the body more easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Foods that are high in fiber: bran, dried herbs, spices, and peppers, soy beans, dark chocolate, and nuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crohn's disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemorrhoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus  </li></ul></ul>Describe the importance of a diet high in dietary fiber.
    28. 30. References <ul><ul><li>http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/540carbohydrates.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ibchem.com/IB/ibnotes/brief/pdf/optB.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.chem.purdue.edu/courses/chm333/Fall%202009/Lectures/Fall%202009%20Lecture%2028.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol1025.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=423 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/science_of_cooking/glucose.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/547cellulose.html </li></ul></ul>

    ×