Ep 2012 week4-piaget_para-tarjetas


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Ep 2012 week4-piaget_para-tarjetas

  1. 1. 31/01/2012 Educational Implications of Piagets Theory 1/7• Piaget’s theories have had a major impact on the theory and practice of education.• First, the theories focused attention on the idea of developmentally appropriate education—an education with environments, curriculum, materials, and instruction that are suitable for students in terms of their physical and cognitive abilities and their social and emotional needs. Educational Implications of Piagets Theory 2/7• In addition, several major approaches to curriculum and instruction are explicitly based on Piagetian theory, and this theory has been influential in constructivist models of learning.• Berk (2001) summarizes the main teaching implications drawn from Piaget as follows: 1
  2. 2. 31/01/2012Educational Implications of Piagets Theory 3/71. A focus on the process of children’s thinking, not just its products. In addition to checking the correctness of children’s answers, teachers must understand the processes children use to get to the answer. Appropriate learning experiences build on children’s current level of cognitive functioning, and only when teachers appreciate children’s methods of arriving at particular conclusions are they in a position to provide such experiences.Educational Implications of Piagets Theory 4/72. Recognition of the crucial role of children’s self-initiated, active involvement in learning activities. In a Piagetian classroom the presentation of ready-made knowledge is deemphasized, and children are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment. Therefore, instead of teaching didactically, teachers provide a rich variety of activities that permit children to act directly on the physical world. 2
  3. 3. 31/01/2012 Educational Implications of Piagets Theory 5/73. A deemphasis on practices aimed at making children adultlike in their thinking. Piaget referred to the question “How can we speed up development?” as “the American question.” Among the many countries he visited, psychologists and educators in the United States seemed most interested in what techniques could be used to accelerate children’s progress through the stages. Piagetian-based educational programs accept his firm belief that premature teaching could be worse than no teaching at all, because it leads to superficial acceptance of adult formulas rather than true cognitive understanding. Educational Implications of Piagets Theory 6/74. Acceptance of individual differences in developmental progress. Piaget’s theory assumes that all children go through the same developmental sequence but that they do so at different rates. Therefore, teachers must make a special effort to arrange classroom activities for individuals and small groups of children rather than for the total class group. In addition, because individual differences are expected, assessment of children’s educational progress should be made in terms of each child’s own previous course of development, not in terms of normative standards provided by the performances of same-age peers. 3
  4. 4. 31/01/2012 Educational Implications of Piagets Theory 7/75. Piaget emphasized the role of two types of relationships: constraint and cooperation in moral development. Relationships of constraint involve unilateral respect and the imposition of views from authority. In contrast, relationships of cooperation are best suited for the development of knowledge because they involve mutual respect, and each person is obliged to listen to the other and to fully explain themselves. This situation is most likely to lead to mutual understanding, which is essential in the development of all forms of knowledge. Limitations on Piaget’s Theory 1/7 • Although Piaget’s influence on Developmental and Educational Psychology has been enormous, recent research do not support all of his ideas. • Almost all psychologists agree with his descriptions on the way children think, but many of them disagree with his explanations on why thinking develops the way it does. 4
  5. 5. 31/01/2012 Limitations on Piaget’s Theory 2/7• Problems With Research Methods• Much of the criticism of Piagets work is in regards to his research methods. A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piagets observations of his own three children. In addition to this, the other children in Piagets small research sample were all from well- educated professionals of high socio-economic status. Because of this unrepresentative sample, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population. Limitations on Piaget’s Theory 3/7• Problems With Formal Operations• Research has disputed Piagets argument that all children will automatically move to the next stage of development as they mature. Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations. 5
  6. 6. 31/01/2012 Limitations on Piaget’s Theory 4/7• Underestimates Childrens Abilities• Most researchers agree that children posses many of the abilities at an earlier age than Piaget suspected. Recent research on theory of mind has found that children of 4- or 5-years old have a rather sophisticated understanding of their own mental processes as well as those of other people. For example, children of this age have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed. Limitations on Piaget’s Theory 5/7The model underestimates young childrens abilitiesand overestimates older childrens abilities.In Piagets model, children have limitations in logicalthinking until the age of seven due to "perceptualcentration," "irreversibility" and "egocentrism."However, critics say many children are able toovercome these limitations at the age of five or six. Sothis generalization may not fit all children. Again criticssay there are many children who are not able to thinkabstractly and hypothetically during the period of 11-15. Particularly, the age of 11 is too early to startcomplex mental operations. 6
  7. 7. 31/01/2012 Limitations on Piaget’s Theory 6/7 The model overemphasizes biological influence on cognitive development. According to the model, every child goes through similar stages of cognitive development and environment and education have little influence on these stages. An important implication of this assumption is that educations contribution is not so powerful on cognitive development. Limitations on Piaget’s Theory 7/7Piagets model implicates that the teaching process should bestudent-centered, that is, the student should be main source ofinformation in the educational process.The major task of the teacher is to design an environment that isconducive to active involvement and learning, but not transmittingknowledge to the student directly. The teacher is a facilitator only.The child will actively explore the outside world and try to makesense based on his/her cognitive level of operation. An impositionon him/her will confuse the child especially if that impositions is notparallel to his level. This position brings out an implication about therole of schools and teachers in childs learning a passive one. Thisimplication is criticized by many educators since it underestimateschildrens learning abilities and the influence of schooling on childscognitive development. 7