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Nature, Theory, & Research in Human Development Chapter 1
Basic Developmental Concepts <ul><li>Development : age-related changes that are orderly, cumulative, and directional </li>...
Basic Developmental Concepts <ul><li>Qualitative changes : novel ability emerges that can’t be measured with a previous st...
Basic Developmental Concepts <ul><li>2 ideas about how children develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous development : cha...
Basic Developmental Concepts <ul><li>Normative development : typical or average development of all children </li></ul><ul>...
Periods of Development <ul><li>Prenatal Period: conception to birth </li></ul><ul><li>Infancy and toddlerhood: 0-2 years <...
Historical Foundations <ul><li>John Locke (1600s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are  tabula rasas : totally blank slates ...
Modern Theories <ul><li>Scientific beginnings (1900s) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature/nurture interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G...
Cognitive Theories of Development <ul><li>Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Normative cognitive development from birth to 12 years ...
Social-Emotional Theories of Development <ul><li>Psychoanalytic </li></ul><ul><li>Freud & Erikson </li></ul><ul><li>Early ...
Why so many theories? <ul><li>Different theories focus on different aspects of development </li></ul><ul><li>Our knowledge...
Developmental Research <ul><li>Goals of Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To describe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To explain <...
Ethical Considerations for  Child Development Research <ul><li>Family’s physical and mental health/safety </li></ul><ul><u...
Ethical Research <ul><li>Institutional Review Board at UMD </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.umresearch.umd.edu/IRB/index.htm <...
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Chapter 1 Theory

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Chapter 1 Theory

  1. 1. Nature, Theory, & Research in Human Development Chapter 1
  2. 2. Basic Developmental Concepts <ul><li>Development : age-related changes that are orderly, cumulative, and directional </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Reorganization: a qualitative change in the way a developing child organizes and uses his or her capabilities (stage) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Developmental Concepts <ul><li>Qualitative changes : novel ability emerges that can’t be measured with a previous standard of measurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Babbling babies eventually learn to say actual words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Egocentric toddlers become young adults with empathy for others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative changes : when change can be measured using same standard of measurement before </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Toddlers learning to walk eventually walk across the room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Attention span changes from 15 minutes to 50 minutes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Developmental Concepts <ul><li>2 ideas about how children develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous development : changes are small and gradual, difficult to notice change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discontinuous development : changes are made in steps and stages, easy to notice change </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Basic Developmental Concepts <ul><li>Normative development : typical or average development of all children </li></ul><ul><li>Individual development : variations around the normative course of development </li></ul><ul><li>Development is influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Developmental history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Environment </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Periods of Development <ul><li>Prenatal Period: conception to birth </li></ul><ul><li>Infancy and toddlerhood: 0-2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Early childhood: 2-7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Middle childhood: 7-11 years </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence: 11-20 years </li></ul>
  7. 7. Historical Foundations <ul><li>John Locke (1600s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are tabula rasas : totally blank slates to be written on by life’s experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jean Jacques Rousseau (1700s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human development unfolds naturally in stages as long as society allows it to do so </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin (1800s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through natural selection, humans have acquired common traits that have helped us to adapt and increase our chances of survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: babies are cute so people want to care for them </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Modern Theories <ul><li>Scientific beginnings (1900s) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature/nurture interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic influences can unfold only within an environmental context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental influences need a base of genetic potentials to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The major issue today is exactly how genes, developmental history, and environment interact </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Cognitive Theories of Development <ul><li>Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Normative cognitive development from birth to 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Children are active learners (not passive) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth occurs on spurts </li></ul><ul><li>Major shifts in thinking took place at approximately 2, 7, and 12 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Information-Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Compare thoughts to the workings of a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in attention, memory, and thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Study the social and cultural processes in which thinking originates </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of proximal development: children rely on older children and adults to teach them </li></ul>
  10. 10. Social-Emotional Theories of Development <ul><li>Psychoanalytic </li></ul><ul><li>Freud & Erikson </li></ul><ul><li>Early emotional experiences are very powerful and can influence later development </li></ul><ul><li>Freud: 5 stages </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson: 8 stages </li></ul><ul><li>Social-Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Children tend to repeat behaviors that result in rewards or help them to avoid unpleasant consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling: learning comes from observing others </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptational </li></ul><ul><li>Bowlby </li></ul><ul><li>Babies are predisposed to behave in ways that promote closeness with their caregivers </li></ul><ul><li>Attachments are biologically built in and it unfolds through a sequence of stages </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why so many theories? <ul><li>Different theories focus on different aspects of development </li></ul><ul><li>Our knowledge of human development is a work in progress </li></ul><ul><li>Theories disagree on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual development vs. stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early vs. current experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specificity vs. generality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refer to Table 1.3 on p. 22 to compare various theories </li></ul>
  12. 12. Developmental Research <ul><li>Goals of Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To describe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To explain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-experimental research </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ethical Considerations for Child Development Research <ul><li>Family’s physical and mental health/safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: studying effects of child abuse, rape, domestic violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informed Consent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: parents’ permission to test ADHD medication, permission to spank children in school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right to refuse or withdraw from study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: parents can stop medication study at any time, parents can not allow their child to be spanked </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Ethical Research <ul><li>Institutional Review Board at UMD </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.umresearch.umd.edu/IRB/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Oversee all UMD research projects to ensure that participants’ rights are protected at all times </li></ul>

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