Desarrollo cognitivo

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Desarrollo cognitivo

  1. 1. Cognitive Development Chapter 13
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Major Approaches to Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of Information-Processing Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitive Skills and Memory Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurophysiological Changes in Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing Neuronal Complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation of Central Nervous System Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Development in Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of Growth and Decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom and Aging </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>cognitive development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The investigation of how mental skills build and change with increasing physiological maturity (maturation) and experience (learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>The most comprehensive theory of cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>We can learn as much about children’s intellectual development from examining their incorrect answers to test items as from examining their correct answers </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Development occurs in stages that evolve via equilibration, in which children seek a balance (equilibrium) between what they encounter in their environments and cognitive processes and structures they have </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibration involves three stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when child’s existing mode of thought and existing schemas are adequate for confronting and adapting to the challenges of environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporating new information into the child’s existing schemas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing the existing schemas to fit the relevant new information about the environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves increases in the number and the complexity of sensory (input) and motor (output) abilities during infancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0-9 months – infant cognition seems to focus only on what the infants immediately can perceive through their senses </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 months and older have a sense of object permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge that objects continue to exist even when imperceptible to the infants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children begin to show signs of representational thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child starts to be able to think about people and objects that are not necessarily perceptible at that moment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperational Stage (2 to 6-7 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The child begins actively to develop the internal mental representations that started at the end of the sensorimotor stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children exhibit centration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A tendency to focus on only one especially noticeable aspect of a complicated object or situation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete-Operational Stage (7-8 to 11-12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children become able to manipulate mentally the internal representations that they formed during the preoperational period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation of quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The child is able mentally to conserve (keep in mind) a given quantity despite observing changes in the appearance of the object or substance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Formal-Operational Stage (older than 11-12 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children develop mental operations on abstractions and symbols that may not have physical, concrete forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are finally fully able to take on perspectives other than their own, even when they are not working with concrete objects </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Rediscovered in 1970s and 1980s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vygotsky emphasized the role of the environment in children’s intellectual development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The absorption of knowledge from context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The environment determines what the child internalizes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of proximal development (ZPD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The zone of potential development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The range of potential between a child’s observable level of realized ability (performance) and the child’s underlying latent capacity (competence), which is not directly obvious </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 1. Major Approaches to Cognitive Development <ul><li>1. Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic assessment environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The interaction between child and examiner does not end when the child responds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In static testing, when a child gives a wrong answer, the examiner moves on to the next problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In dynamic assessment, when the child gives a wrong answer, the examiner gives the child a graded sequence of guided hints to facilitate problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Cognitive Development in Adulthood <ul><li>Fluid intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cognitive-processing skills that enable us to manipulate abstract symbols, as in mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our stored knowledge, which is largely declarative, such as vocabulary, but also may be procedural, such as the expertise of a master chess player </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although crystallized intelligence is higher, on average, for older adults than for younger adults, fluid intelligence is higher, on average, for young (20s, 30s, 40s) adults than for older ones </li></ul>

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