Lecture 11a;Sensory Input and  Motor Output
SensesIn order to be able to respond to stimuli, ananimal must be able to receive sensory inputSense organs are specialize...
Chemical SensesProbably most primitive senseAlmost all animals can sense chemicalsin the environment  Ex. fly tastes with ...
TasteTaste buds on the tongue  Receptor proteins for chemicals located  on microvilli on the cells of taste buds  When mol...
Taste5 types of taste  Bitter  Sour  Sweet  Salty  Umami (savory) - meat flavor
TasteWhen you eat, the food causes manynerve signals to be sent to the brainThe brain ‘averages’ all of the differenttaste...
SmellSmell works in almost the same way astaste, except the receptors are in the noseChemical receptors are located on cil...
Taste and SmellTaste and smell are linkedBoth trigger reflex responses to startdigestionRevolting substances can trigger g...
Smell and Memory Olfactory bulbs that process smell have direct connections to the limbic system in the brain   Remember t...
Hearing and BalanceHuman ear is used for both hearing andbalanceHair cells are the receptors in the earThey respond to mec...
HearingOuter ear collects sound wavesTympanic membrane vibratesOssicles magnify sound about 20xStapes hits against the ova...
HearingEach part of spiral organ (the cochlea, andhair cells inside it) is sensitive to differentwave frequencies = pitchV...
BalanceWe can sense two types of movement: rotationaland gravitationalRotational is sensed in the semicircular canals ofin...
BalanceGravitational balance is sensed in the vestibuleof the inner earIt has two parts, the utricle and the saccule,which...
VisionReceptors are sensitive to lightHuman eye: one lens focuses light onphotoreceptors in the retinaBecause we see from ...
VisionThe cornea and the lens focus light on theretinaIris regulates how much light entersthrough the pupilPhotoreceptors ...
PhotoreceptorsTwo types of photoreceptors: rods andconesEach uses a pigment that is broken bylight energy- this starts a c...
PhotoreceptorsRods- ultra sensitive, throughout the retina   Night vision, peripheral vision, perception of   motionCones-...
Cutaneous ReceptorsLocated in the skinRespond to touch, pressure, pain, temperatureTemperature and pain receptors inepider...
ProprioceptorsLocated in joints and musclesTells the brain where the body is and howit is movingEssential for balance and ...
Motor SystemsSkeleton- made of bone, is alive and ableto growAxial skeleton- skull, vertebral column,sacrumAppendicular sk...
BonesCompactbone-containsosteocytesandosteoblastsSpongybone- has redbone marrow
Skeletal MuscleWhen skeletal muscle fibers contract, theyget shorterMuscles contain two types of filaments-actin and myosi...
Joints3 types- immovable (ie cranium)  slightly movable (ie back)  freely movable (knee, hip, etc.)Freely movable are syno...
JointsBall and socket joints- shoulder, hip   allow movement in all planesHinge joints- knee, elbow   Movement in one plan...
11a; sense and movement
11a; sense and movement
11a; sense and movement
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11a; sense and movement

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  • 11a; sense and movement

    1. 1. Lecture 11a;Sensory Input and Motor Output
    2. 2. SensesIn order to be able to respond to stimuli, ananimal must be able to receive sensory inputSense organs are specialized to receive onetype of stimulus Sensory organs send nerve impulses to the brain The brain is what actually perceives the information sent
    3. 3. Chemical SensesProbably most primitive senseAlmost all animals can sense chemicalsin the environment Ex. fly tastes with its feet Ex. moths have receptors on antennae
    4. 4. TasteTaste buds on the tongue Receptor proteins for chemicals located on microvilli on the cells of taste buds When molecules bind, nerve impulses generated
    5. 5. Taste5 types of taste Bitter Sour Sweet Salty Umami (savory) - meat flavor
    6. 6. TasteWhen you eat, the food causes manynerve signals to be sent to the brainThe brain ‘averages’ all of the differenttastes to create the flavor of that food
    7. 7. SmellSmell works in almost the same way astaste, except the receptors are in the noseChemical receptors are located on cilia ofcells in the noseMixture of odors interpreted the sameway in the brain, as an average
    8. 8. Taste and SmellTaste and smell are linkedBoth trigger reflex responses to startdigestionRevolting substances can trigger gagreflexSmells of smoke or predators can triggerflight or fight response
    9. 9. Smell and Memory Olfactory bulbs that process smell have direct connections to the limbic system in the brain Remember this where memory and emotions occur
    10. 10. Hearing and BalanceHuman ear is used for both hearing andbalanceHair cells are the receptors in the earThey respond to mechanical stimulation
    11. 11. HearingOuter ear collects sound wavesTympanic membrane vibratesOssicles magnify sound about 20xStapes hits against the oval windowVibrations from there passed to fluid in thecochleaHair cells in cochlea move in the fluid,stimulate nerves
    12. 12. HearingEach part of spiral organ (the cochlea, andhair cells inside it) is sensitive to differentwave frequencies = pitchVolume is an artifact of the amplitude ofthe sound wavesTone that is interpreted by the braindepends on the distribution of thestimulated hair cells
    13. 13. BalanceWe can sense two types of movement: rotationaland gravitationalRotational is sensed in the semicircular canals ofinner ear 3 canals- each corresponds to a different plane of space Movement of the head causes movement of the fluid- stimulates hair cells, signal sent to brain
    14. 14. BalanceGravitational balance is sensed in the vestibuleof the inner earIt has two parts, the utricle and the saccule,which are membranous sacs Contain hair cells, but set up is a bit different- granules called otoliths rest on the cilia of the hair cells, and their displacement during head movement stimulates the cells
    15. 15. VisionReceptors are sensitive to lightHuman eye: one lens focuses light onphotoreceptors in the retinaBecause we see from two vantage points(two eyes) we have binocular vision,which allows us to judge distance
    16. 16. VisionThe cornea and the lens focus light on theretinaIris regulates how much light entersthrough the pupilPhotoreceptors on the retina send nerveimpulses to the brainShape of lens controlled by ciliary muscles
    17. 17. PhotoreceptorsTwo types of photoreceptors: rods andconesEach uses a pigment that is broken bylight energy- this starts a chain reactionthat ends with the nerve impulse
    18. 18. PhotoreceptorsRods- ultra sensitive, throughout the retina Night vision, peripheral vision, perception of motionCones- located in the fovea- one part of retina 3 types of pigments for red, blue, green light Respond to bright light Color and detail vision
    19. 19. Cutaneous ReceptorsLocated in the skinRespond to touch, pressure, pain, temperatureTemperature and pain receptors inepidermis- outer layer of skinPressure and touch receptors in dermis-inner layer of skinSee diagram on pg. 507
    20. 20. ProprioceptorsLocated in joints and musclesTells the brain where the body is and howit is movingEssential for balance and equilibriumas well as movement
    21. 21. Motor SystemsSkeleton- made of bone, is alive and ableto growAxial skeleton- skull, vertebral column,sacrumAppendicular skeleton- pectoral andpelvic girdle
    22. 22. BonesCompactbone-containsosteocytesandosteoblastsSpongybone- has redbone marrow
    23. 23. Skeletal MuscleWhen skeletal muscle fibers contract, theyget shorterMuscles contain two types of filaments-actin and myosin Myosin acts like an anchor, and in the presence of ATP it will bind to actin and pull on it, causing the actin fibers to get closer to each other- this is contraction
    24. 24. Joints3 types- immovable (ie cranium) slightly movable (ie back) freely movable (knee, hip, etc.)Freely movable are synovial joints Bound together by ligaments Ligaments also create capsule around joint that contains fluid for lubrication
    25. 25. JointsBall and socket joints- shoulder, hip allow movement in all planesHinge joints- knee, elbow Movement in one plane onlyMuscles work in antagonistic pairs, ie bicepsand triceps, since they can only contractTendons connect muscles to bones

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