ASAS PSIKOLOGI sensation and perception


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ASAS PSIKOLOGI sensation and perception

  1. 1. Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception
  2. 2. Sensation and Perception  Sensation – The process by which our sense organs receive information from the environment  Perception – The sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli involving our sense organs and brain
  3. 3. Sensing the World Around Us  Stimulus – Energy that produces a response in a sense organ – Varies in both type and intensity  Psychophysics – The study of the relationship between the physical aspects of stimuli and our psychological experience of them
  4. 4. Sensing the World Around Us  Absolute threshold – The smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for it to be detected
  5. 5. Sensing the World Around Us  Noise – Background stimulation that interferes with the perception of other stimuli
  6. 6. Noticing Distinctions Between Thresholds  Just-noticeable difference – The smallest level of stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred  Weber’s law – Basic law of psychophysics that states “a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus
  7. 7. Sensing Our World  Sensory adaptation – An adjustment in sensory capacity following prolonged exposure to stimuli
  8. 8. Vision: Structure of The Eye
  9. 9. Vision: Reaching the Retina Rods are thin, cylindrical receptor cells highly sensitive to light Cones are cone-shaped, light-sensitive receptor cells that are responsible for sharp focus and color perception, particularly in bright light
  10. 10. Vision: Sending the Message From the Eye to the Brain  Bipolar cells – Receive information directly from rods and cones and then communicates this information to ganglion cells  Ganglion cells – Collect and summarize visual information, which is gathered and moved out of the back of the eyeball through a bundle of ganglion axons called the optic nerve
  11. 11. Vision: Processing the Visual Message  Optic chiasm – Juncture where the optic nerves of both eyes meet and then split  Feature detection – Some neurons in the cortex are activated only by visual stimuli of a particular shape or pattern
  12. 12. Color Vision and Color Blindness  Trichromatic theory of color vision – Suggests that there are three kinds of cones in the retina, each of which responds primarily to a specific range of wavelengths  Opponent-process theory of color vision – Proposes that receptor cells are linked in pairs, working in opposition to each other
  13. 13. Color Blindness  The trichromatic theory of color vision proposes that color blindness is due to one of the three cone systems is malfunctioning, and colors covered by that range are misperceived
  14. 14. Hearing: Sensing Sound  Sound – The movement of air molecules brought about by the vibration of an object  Eardrum – The part of the ear that vibrates when sound waves hit it  Middle ear – Tiny chamber containing three bones (stirrup, anvil, and hammer) that acts as a tiny mechanical amplifier
  15. 15. Hearing: Sensing Sound  Cochlea – Coiled tube that looks something like a snail and is filled with fluid that can vibrate in response to sound  Basilar membrane – Structure that runs through the center of the cochlea, dividing it into an upper and lower chamber  Hair cells – Tiny cells located on the basilar membrane that are bent by the vibrations entering the cochlea and transmit a neural message
  16. 16. Hearing: Physical Aspects of Sound  Frequency – Number of wave cycles that occur in a second  Pitch – Characteristic of the sound that makes sound high or low
  17. 17. Hearing: Physical Aspects of Sound  Intensity – Feature of wave patterns that allows us to distinguish between loud and soft sounds  Decibels – Measurement of the intensity of the sound within our range of hearing
  18. 18. Hearing: Sorting Out Theories of Sound  Place theory of hearing – Different areas of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies  Frequency theory of hearing – The entire basilar membrane acts like a microphone, vibrating as a whole in response to a sound
  19. 19. Balance  Semicircular canals – Structures of the inner ear consisting of three tubes containing fluid that sloshes through them when the head moves, signaling rotational or angular movement of the brain  Otoliths – Tiny, motion-sensitive crystals that sense bodily acceleration and gravity within the semicircular canals
  20. 20. Smell  Olfaction – Can detect more than 10,000 different smells – Can identify gender by smell – Can evoke memories  Olfactory cells – Receptor cells of the nose  Pheromones – Pollen-like chemicals that are released by non- humans that have an effect on other’s behavior
  21. 21. Taste: Gustation  Taste buds – Receptor cells located within the tongue, as well as other parts of the mouth and throat – Constantly reproduce every 10 days – “Supertasters” v “Nontasters” Bitter Sour Salty Sweet and Fatty
  22. 22. The Skin Senses  Touch, pressure, temperature, and pain  Gate-control theory of pain – Particular nerve receptors in the spinal cord lead to specific areas of the brain related to pain
  23. 23. Perceptual Organization  Figure – The object being perceived  Ground – The background or spaces within the object
  24. 24. Perceptual Organization: The Gestalt Laws of Organization Proximity Simplicity Closure Similarity
  25. 25. Perceptual Organization: Feature Analysis  An approach that considers how we perceive a shape, pattern, object, or scene by reacting first to the individual elements that make it up
  26. 26. Perceptual Organization  Top-down processing – Perception that is guided by higher- level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations  Bottom-up processing – Perception that consists of recognizing and processing information about the individual components of the stimuli
  27. 27. Perceptual Organization  Perceptual constancy – Phenomena in which physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent, despite changes
  28. 28. Perceptual Organization: Depth Perception  Binocular disparity – The ability of the brain to integrate the two images received from the eyes into one composite view  Monocular cues – Cues that allow us to obtain a sense of depth and distance with just one eye • Motion parallax • Relative size • Linear perspective
  29. 29. Perceptual Illusions •Visual illusions are physical stimuli that consistently produce errors in perception.
  30. 30. Poggendorf Illusion
  31. 31. Perception: Outer Limits  Subliminal perception – The perception of messages about which we have no awareness  Extrasensory perception (ESP)