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By
Anik Rahmawati, S.Pd
SMP NEGERI 1 PONOROGO


What kind of sense organ work above?
The Human Nervous System
The Human Nervous System has three specific functions
It receives sensory input
_sensory receptors in skin and other organs respond to external and internal stimuli
by generating nerve impulses that travel to the central nervous system (CNS)
It performs integration
_the CNS sums up the input it receives from all over the body,
It generate motor output
_Nerve impulses from the CNS go to the muscles and glands
(muscle contractions and gland secretions are responses to stimuli received by
sensory receptors)
Responding to Stimuli






Any internal or external change that brings
about a response is called a stimulus
Noise, light, the smell of food, and the
temperature of the air are all stimuli from
outside your body.
Chemical substances such as hormones are
examples of stimuli from inside your body. Your
body adjusts to changing stimuli with the help
of your nervous system.
A neuron is made up of a cell body, dendrites,
and an axon. An impulse moves in only one
direction across a synapse—from an axon to
the dendrites or cell body of another neuron.
Nerve Cells
The basic functioning units of the nervous system are nerve

cells, or neurons
a neuron is made up of a cell body, branches called
dendrites, and an axon
Any message carried by a neuron is called an impulse.
Your neurons are adapted in such a way that impulses move
in only one direction
Dendrites receive impulses from other neurons and send
them to the cell body
An axon carries impulses away from the cell body
Three types of neurons
Sensory neurons receive information and send impulses to

the brain or spinal cord
where interneurons relay these impulses to motor neurons
Motor neurons then conduct impulses from the brain or
spinal cord to muscles or glands throughout your body
Synapses
Neurons don’t touch each other. As an impulse moves from one

neuron to another it crosses a small space called a synapse .
When an impulse reaches the end of an axon,the axon releases
a chemical. This chemical flows across the synapse and
stimulates the impulse in the dendrite of the next neuron.
The Divisions of the
Nervous System
The divisions of the nervous
system grouped into two major
divisions—
1. The central nervous system (CNS)
2. The peripheral nervous system
(PNS)
1. The central ner vous system
(CNS)
The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal

cord.
The brain is the control center for all activities in the
body. It is made of billions of neurons.
The spinal cord is made up of bundles of neurons. An
adult’s spinal cord is about the width of a thumb and
about 43 cm long. Sensory neurons send impulses to the
brain or spinal cord.
The Peripheral Nervous System
All the nerves outside the CNS that connect the brain and spinal

cord to other body parts are part of the peripheral nervous
system
The PNS includes
12 pairs of nerves from your
brain called cranial nerves, and
31 pairs of nerves from your spinal
cord called spinal nerves
Spinal nerves are made up of bundles of sensory
and motor neurons bound together by connective tissue.
They carry impulses from all parts of the body to the brain and
from the brain to all parts of your body.
The Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system has two major divisions.
1. The somatic system
The somatic system controls voluntary actions. It is made up of the
cranial and spinal nerves that go from the central nervous system to your
skeletal muscles.
2. The autonomic system
The autonomic system controls involuntary actions—those not under
conscious control—such as your heart rate, breathing, digestion, and
glandular functions.
Your response in a reflex is controlled
in your spinal cord, not your brain.
Reflexes
 A reflex is an involuntary, automatic response

to a stimulus.

 You can’t control reflexes because they occur

before you know what has happened. A reflex
involves a simple nerve pathway called a reflex arc,
as illustrated in Figure above.

 A reflex allows the body to respond without having

to think about what action to take. Reflex
responses are controlled in your spinal cord, not in
your brain. Your brain acts after the reflex to help
you figure out what to do to make the pain stop.
Reflex arc
Reflex arc
Sensory
neurone
Receptors in skin
cells

Grey matter
reflex arc bbc

Relay
neurone
Motor neurone

Effector
(muscle)
SENSE ORGAN
1. Chemical Sense (Sense of taste
an smell)
2. Sense of Vision
3. Sense of Hearing and Balance
• Sense organs intercep stimuli, such as light
rays,sound waves, temperature, chemicals, or
pressure, and convert them into impulses
transmitted by the nervous system. Your internal
organs
1. Chemical Sense
The sensory receptors responsible for taste and
smell are termed chemoreceptors (Gk, chemo,
pertaining to chemicals; L. Receptor, receiver).
Because thery are sensitive to certain chemical
substances in food, including liquids, and air.
•The receptors for taste are located in the mouth
•The receptors for smell are located in the nose
1.1 Sense of Taste




Taste Sometimes you taste a new food with
the tip of your tongue, it tastes sweet. Then
when you chew it, it tastes bitter. Taste buds
on your tongue are the major sensory
receptors for taste.
The five taste sensations are sweet, salty,
sour, bitter and the taste of MSG
(monosodium glutamate).
About 10,000 taste buds all over your tongue
enable you to tell one taste from another. Most
taste buds respond to several taste sensations.
MECHANISM TO TASTE
A taste bud responds to chemical stimuli.
 In order to taste something, it has to be dissolved
in water. Saliva begins this process. When a
solution of saliva and food washes over taste
buds, impulses are sent to your brain. The brain
interprets the impulses, and you identify the
tastes.

1.2 SENSE OF SMELL
The sense of smell or olfaction, is dependent on
between 10 and 20 million olfactory cells. These
structures are located within olfactory
epithelium high in the roof of the nasal cavity.
Olfactory cells are modified neurons.
 Olfactory epithelium cantains olfactory cells. The
cilia of olfactory cells have receptor protein for
odor molecules that cause the brain to
distinguish odors.

How can you smell your favorite food?
You can smell food because
1. Molecules from the food move into the air.
2. If they enter your nasal passages, these molecules stimulate
sensitive nerve cells, called olfactory cells. Olfactory cells are
kept moist by mucus. When molecules in the air dissolve in this
moisture, the cells become stimulated.
3. If enough molecules are present, an impulse starts in these cells,
then travels to the brain where the stimulus is interpreted.
4. If the stimulus is recognized from a previous experience, you can
identify the odor.
5. If you don’t recognize a particular odor, it is remembered and can
be identified the next time you encounter it.
Smell and Taste
The sense of smell is needed to identify some
foods such as chocolate. When saliva in your
mouth mixes with chocolate, odors travel up the
nasal passage in the back of your throat.
Olfactory cells in the nose are stimulated, and
the taste and smell of chocolate are sensed. So
when you have a stuffy nose and some foods
seem tasteless, it might be because the food’s
molecules are blocked from contacting the
olfactory cells in your nasal passages.
2. SENSE OF VISION
Photoreceptors [Gk. photos, light; L. receptor,
receiver] are sensory receptors that are sensitive
to light
 Jalan pulo indah- asri raya RT 02 RW 04 No 1.
Kelurahan petir Cipondo-tangerang,

• Light moves through the cornea and the
lens—before striking the retina.
• Name the structures that enable you to
see light!
How do you see?
Light travels in a straight line unless something causes it to

refract or change direction. Your eyes have structures that
refract light. Two of these structures are the cornea and the
lens. As light enters the eye, it passes through the cornea—
the transparent section at the front of the eye—and is
refracted. Then light passes through a lens and is refracted
again. The lens directs the light onto the retina, which is a
tissue at the back of the eye that is sensitive to light energy.
Two types of cells called rods and cones are found in the
retina. Cones respond to bright light and color. Rods
respond to dim light. They are used to help you detect shape
and movement.
3. SENSE OF HEARING AND
HEARING
The ear has two sensory function: hearing and balance

(equilibrium). The sensory receptors for both of these are
located in the inner ear, and each consists of hair cells with
stereocilia (long microvilli) that are sensitive to mechanical
stimulation. They are mechanoreceptors.
Anatomy of the Ear
Your ear is divided into three sections—the outer ear,

middle ear, and inner ear.Your outer ear intercepts sound
waves and they move down the ear canal to the middle ear.
The sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate much like the
membrane on a musical drum vibrates when you tap it.
These vibrations then move through three tiny bones called
the hammer, anvil, and stirrup. The stirrup bone rests against
a second membrane on an opening to the inner ear.
Sound waves can travel through solids, liquids, and gases.

When sound waves reach your ear, they usually stimulate
nerve cells deep within your ear. Impulses from these cells
are sent to the brain. When the sound impulse reaches the
hearing area of the brain, it responds and you hear a sound.
The inner ear includes the cochlea and the
semicircular canals. The cochlea is a fluid filled
structure shaped like a snail’s shell. When the
stirrup vibrates, fluids in the cochlea begin to
vibrate. These vibrations bend sensory hair
cells in the cochlea, which cause electrical
impulses to be sent to the brain by a nerve.
Depending on how the nerve endings are
stimulated, you hear a different type of sound.
In your inner ear the
cristae ampullaris react to
rotating movements of your
body, and the maculae check
the position of your head
with respect to the ground.
Explain why spinning around makes you dizzy?
Balance
Structures in your inner ear also control your body’s balance.

Structures called the cristae ampullaris and the maculae,
sense body movement. The cristae ampullaris react to
rotating body movements and the maculae responds to the
tilt of your head. Both structures contain tiny hair cells. As
your body moves, gel-like fluid surrounding the hair cells
moves and stimulates the nerve cells at the base of the hair
cells. This produces nerve impulses that are sent to the brain,
which interprets the body movement. The brain, in turn,
sends impulses to skeletal muscles, resulting in other body
movements that maintain balance.
Gangguan Pada Sistem Saraf
Parkinson, disebabkan rusaknya saraf di otak karena cidera
atau tekanan yang keraspada kepala. Gejalanya: kekakuan
otot, tremor pada tangan, dan sulit untuk memulai
gerakan.
2. Epilepsi, disebabkan karena kegiatan berlebihan atau tak
terkendalinya sistem saraf pusat. Serangan dapat terjadi
tiba-tiba berupa kejang pada tubuh.
3. Alzeimer, biasanya pada orang lanjut usia karena tidak
dihasilkannya senyawa neurotransmitter. Gejalanya berupa
kebingungan dan hilangnya ingatan.
1.
4. Stroke, adanya penyumpatan pada pembuluh darah sehingga
otak kekurangan nutrisi dan oksigen,
5. Sakit kepala, terjadi karena kurang lancarnya peredaran darah
pada otak sehingga otak kekurangan nutrisi dan oksigen.
Biasanya sakit kepala adalah salah satu gejala awal dari
penyakit lain.
6. Polio, disebabkan oleh infeksi virus polio pada sumsum
tulang belakang. Virus ini menyerang anak-anak dan dapat
menyebabkan kelumpuhan.
7. Meningitis radang pada selaput otak yang disebabkan oleh
infeksi virus.

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The human nervous system and sense organ

  • 1. By Anik Rahmawati, S.Pd SMP NEGERI 1 PONOROGO
  • 2.  What kind of sense organ work above?
  • 3. The Human Nervous System The Human Nervous System has three specific functions It receives sensory input _sensory receptors in skin and other organs respond to external and internal stimuli by generating nerve impulses that travel to the central nervous system (CNS) It performs integration _the CNS sums up the input it receives from all over the body, It generate motor output _Nerve impulses from the CNS go to the muscles and glands (muscle contractions and gland secretions are responses to stimuli received by sensory receptors)
  • 4. Responding to Stimuli    Any internal or external change that brings about a response is called a stimulus Noise, light, the smell of food, and the temperature of the air are all stimuli from outside your body. Chemical substances such as hormones are examples of stimuli from inside your body. Your body adjusts to changing stimuli with the help of your nervous system.
  • 5. A neuron is made up of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. An impulse moves in only one direction across a synapse—from an axon to the dendrites or cell body of another neuron.
  • 6. Nerve Cells The basic functioning units of the nervous system are nerve cells, or neurons a neuron is made up of a cell body, branches called dendrites, and an axon Any message carried by a neuron is called an impulse. Your neurons are adapted in such a way that impulses move in only one direction Dendrites receive impulses from other neurons and send them to the cell body An axon carries impulses away from the cell body
  • 7. Three types of neurons
  • 8. Sensory neurons receive information and send impulses to the brain or spinal cord where interneurons relay these impulses to motor neurons Motor neurons then conduct impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands throughout your body
  • 9. Synapses Neurons don’t touch each other. As an impulse moves from one neuron to another it crosses a small space called a synapse . When an impulse reaches the end of an axon,the axon releases a chemical. This chemical flows across the synapse and stimulates the impulse in the dendrite of the next neuron.
  • 10. The Divisions of the Nervous System The divisions of the nervous system grouped into two major divisions— 1. The central nervous system (CNS) 2. The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • 11. 1. The central ner vous system (CNS) The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the control center for all activities in the body. It is made of billions of neurons. The spinal cord is made up of bundles of neurons. An adult’s spinal cord is about the width of a thumb and about 43 cm long. Sensory neurons send impulses to the brain or spinal cord.
  • 12. The Peripheral Nervous System All the nerves outside the CNS that connect the brain and spinal cord to other body parts are part of the peripheral nervous system The PNS includes 12 pairs of nerves from your brain called cranial nerves, and 31 pairs of nerves from your spinal cord called spinal nerves Spinal nerves are made up of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together by connective tissue. They carry impulses from all parts of the body to the brain and from the brain to all parts of your body.
  • 13. The Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system has two major divisions. 1. The somatic system The somatic system controls voluntary actions. It is made up of the cranial and spinal nerves that go from the central nervous system to your skeletal muscles. 2. The autonomic system The autonomic system controls involuntary actions—those not under conscious control—such as your heart rate, breathing, digestion, and glandular functions.
  • 14. Your response in a reflex is controlled in your spinal cord, not your brain.
  • 15.
  • 16. Reflexes  A reflex is an involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus.  You can’t control reflexes because they occur before you know what has happened. A reflex involves a simple nerve pathway called a reflex arc, as illustrated in Figure above.  A reflex allows the body to respond without having to think about what action to take. Reflex responses are controlled in your spinal cord, not in your brain. Your brain acts after the reflex to help you figure out what to do to make the pain stop.
  • 18. Reflex arc Sensory neurone Receptors in skin cells Grey matter reflex arc bbc Relay neurone Motor neurone Effector (muscle)
  • 19. SENSE ORGAN 1. Chemical Sense (Sense of taste an smell) 2. Sense of Vision 3. Sense of Hearing and Balance
  • 20. • Sense organs intercep stimuli, such as light rays,sound waves, temperature, chemicals, or pressure, and convert them into impulses transmitted by the nervous system. Your internal organs
  • 21. 1. Chemical Sense The sensory receptors responsible for taste and smell are termed chemoreceptors (Gk, chemo, pertaining to chemicals; L. Receptor, receiver). Because thery are sensitive to certain chemical substances in food, including liquids, and air. •The receptors for taste are located in the mouth •The receptors for smell are located in the nose
  • 22. 1.1 Sense of Taste   Taste Sometimes you taste a new food with the tip of your tongue, it tastes sweet. Then when you chew it, it tastes bitter. Taste buds on your tongue are the major sensory receptors for taste. The five taste sensations are sweet, salty, sour, bitter and the taste of MSG (monosodium glutamate).
  • 23. About 10,000 taste buds all over your tongue enable you to tell one taste from another. Most taste buds respond to several taste sensations.
  • 24. MECHANISM TO TASTE A taste bud responds to chemical stimuli.  In order to taste something, it has to be dissolved in water. Saliva begins this process. When a solution of saliva and food washes over taste buds, impulses are sent to your brain. The brain interprets the impulses, and you identify the tastes. 
  • 25. 1.2 SENSE OF SMELL The sense of smell or olfaction, is dependent on between 10 and 20 million olfactory cells. These structures are located within olfactory epithelium high in the roof of the nasal cavity. Olfactory cells are modified neurons.  Olfactory epithelium cantains olfactory cells. The cilia of olfactory cells have receptor protein for odor molecules that cause the brain to distinguish odors. 
  • 26. How can you smell your favorite food? You can smell food because 1. Molecules from the food move into the air. 2. If they enter your nasal passages, these molecules stimulate sensitive nerve cells, called olfactory cells. Olfactory cells are kept moist by mucus. When molecules in the air dissolve in this moisture, the cells become stimulated. 3. If enough molecules are present, an impulse starts in these cells, then travels to the brain where the stimulus is interpreted. 4. If the stimulus is recognized from a previous experience, you can identify the odor. 5. If you don’t recognize a particular odor, it is remembered and can be identified the next time you encounter it.
  • 27. Smell and Taste The sense of smell is needed to identify some foods such as chocolate. When saliva in your mouth mixes with chocolate, odors travel up the nasal passage in the back of your throat. Olfactory cells in the nose are stimulated, and the taste and smell of chocolate are sensed. So when you have a stuffy nose and some foods seem tasteless, it might be because the food’s molecules are blocked from contacting the olfactory cells in your nasal passages.
  • 28. 2. SENSE OF VISION Photoreceptors [Gk. photos, light; L. receptor, receiver] are sensory receptors that are sensitive to light  Jalan pulo indah- asri raya RT 02 RW 04 No 1. Kelurahan petir Cipondo-tangerang, 
  • 29. • Light moves through the cornea and the lens—before striking the retina. • Name the structures that enable you to see light!
  • 30. How do you see? Light travels in a straight line unless something causes it to refract or change direction. Your eyes have structures that refract light. Two of these structures are the cornea and the lens. As light enters the eye, it passes through the cornea— the transparent section at the front of the eye—and is refracted. Then light passes through a lens and is refracted again. The lens directs the light onto the retina, which is a tissue at the back of the eye that is sensitive to light energy. Two types of cells called rods and cones are found in the retina. Cones respond to bright light and color. Rods respond to dim light. They are used to help you detect shape and movement.
  • 31. 3. SENSE OF HEARING AND HEARING The ear has two sensory function: hearing and balance (equilibrium). The sensory receptors for both of these are located in the inner ear, and each consists of hair cells with stereocilia (long microvilli) that are sensitive to mechanical stimulation. They are mechanoreceptors.
  • 33. Your ear is divided into three sections—the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear.Your outer ear intercepts sound waves and they move down the ear canal to the middle ear. The sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate much like the membrane on a musical drum vibrates when you tap it. These vibrations then move through three tiny bones called the hammer, anvil, and stirrup. The stirrup bone rests against a second membrane on an opening to the inner ear.
  • 34. Sound waves can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. When sound waves reach your ear, they usually stimulate nerve cells deep within your ear. Impulses from these cells are sent to the brain. When the sound impulse reaches the hearing area of the brain, it responds and you hear a sound.
  • 35. The inner ear includes the cochlea and the semicircular canals. The cochlea is a fluid filled structure shaped like a snail’s shell. When the stirrup vibrates, fluids in the cochlea begin to vibrate. These vibrations bend sensory hair cells in the cochlea, which cause electrical impulses to be sent to the brain by a nerve. Depending on how the nerve endings are stimulated, you hear a different type of sound.
  • 36. In your inner ear the cristae ampullaris react to rotating movements of your body, and the maculae check the position of your head with respect to the ground.
  • 37. Explain why spinning around makes you dizzy?
  • 38. Balance Structures in your inner ear also control your body’s balance. Structures called the cristae ampullaris and the maculae, sense body movement. The cristae ampullaris react to rotating body movements and the maculae responds to the tilt of your head. Both structures contain tiny hair cells. As your body moves, gel-like fluid surrounding the hair cells moves and stimulates the nerve cells at the base of the hair cells. This produces nerve impulses that are sent to the brain, which interprets the body movement. The brain, in turn, sends impulses to skeletal muscles, resulting in other body movements that maintain balance.
  • 39. Gangguan Pada Sistem Saraf Parkinson, disebabkan rusaknya saraf di otak karena cidera atau tekanan yang keraspada kepala. Gejalanya: kekakuan otot, tremor pada tangan, dan sulit untuk memulai gerakan. 2. Epilepsi, disebabkan karena kegiatan berlebihan atau tak terkendalinya sistem saraf pusat. Serangan dapat terjadi tiba-tiba berupa kejang pada tubuh. 3. Alzeimer, biasanya pada orang lanjut usia karena tidak dihasilkannya senyawa neurotransmitter. Gejalanya berupa kebingungan dan hilangnya ingatan. 1.
  • 40. 4. Stroke, adanya penyumpatan pada pembuluh darah sehingga otak kekurangan nutrisi dan oksigen, 5. Sakit kepala, terjadi karena kurang lancarnya peredaran darah pada otak sehingga otak kekurangan nutrisi dan oksigen. Biasanya sakit kepala adalah salah satu gejala awal dari penyakit lain. 6. Polio, disebabkan oleh infeksi virus polio pada sumsum tulang belakang. Virus ini menyerang anak-anak dan dapat menyebabkan kelumpuhan. 7. Meningitis radang pada selaput otak yang disebabkan oleh infeksi virus.