9a, tissues and homeostasis

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  • 9a, tissues and homeostasis

    1. 1. Lecture 9a:Body Systems and Homeostasis
    2. 2. Organization of OrganismsTissue is composed of similar cellsworking together to perform a similarfunctionOrgans are tissues organized to worktogether to accomplish a specific taskOrgan systems are groups of organs thatcarry out functions for the organism
    3. 3. Tissues4 Main types, but are subdivided as we will seelaterEpithelial tissue covers body surfaces andlines body cavitiesConnective tissue supports and binds bodypartsMuscular tissue provides movementNervous tissue provides communication
    4. 4. Epithelial TissuePrimary function: Protection- it lines all body surfaces and cavities, and the inner and outer linings of organs Substances have to pass through it to get into the body Generally only one cell thick
    5. 5. Epithelial Tissue3 types of cells, differ in shape Squamous epithelium - flattened cells line the air spaces in lungs, blood vessels, and skin Skin is layered, reinforced by keratin Skin protects body from desiccation, injury , and pathogens
    6. 6. Epithelial TissueColumnar epithelium - rectangular cells lines the digestive tract, absorbs nutrientsCuboidal epithelium - cube shaped lines the kidney tubules, absorbs molecules lines the bladder, can stretch
    7. 7. Epithelial TissueAlso forms glands, can produce productsand secrete themGoblet Cells in trachea, digestive tract alsosecrete mucus and other products to aiddigestionThis type of tissue constantly replaces itscells- useful in skin, digestive tractLiver is also derived from epithelial tissue
    8. 8. Connective TissueBinds organs, body together andprovides supportThe cells of connective tissue are usuallyseparated by matrix, which isnoncellular and comes in many forms Collagen is one common matrix fiber
    9. 9. Connective TissueLoose fibrous - Connects epithelial tissue to the othertissues in an organ, Also can form a protective layer around some organs Cells are called fibroblasts - they produce a matrix that contains fibers This tissue enables blood vessels and lungs to expand and then return to original shape Adipose tissue is this type- the cells in it store fat
    10. 10. Connective TissueDense fibrous - contains lots of collagen,packed tightly together Specific functions: tendons, ligaments Cartilage- solid yet flexible matrix Bone - rigid, Ca salts around collagen fibers provide rigidity
    11. 11. Connective TissueBlood is a type of connective tissue- the matrix isthe plasma (liquid) Transports nutrients and oxygen to cells and removes their waste products Red blood cells - small disk shaped, no nucleus, carry oxygen White blood cells - fight infection by either engulfing pathogens or producing antibodies Platelets - fragments of cells that cause clots
    12. 12. Muscular Tissue3 types: Skeletal - voluntary muscle attached through tendons to bones, causes movement of the parts of skeleton Have long cells formed by several fused together, this allows for fast reaction Cardiac - found only in the heart- involuntary because it’s contractions are automatic Separate cells, but bound together at the ends to allow the contraction impulse to spread from one to the next
    13. 13. Muscle TissueSmooth - has a smooth appearance,involuntary Inside the digestive tract, blood vessels Contracts slowly but can hold the contraction for a long time
    14. 14. Nervous TissueProvides communication between parts of thebodyNerve cells are called neuronsEach cell conducts a nerve impulse throughitself to either another neuron or a musclecell or glandNeuroglia are cells that surround neuronsand provide support to them
    15. 15. Nervous TissueEach neuron has 3 parts:Dendrite - extension that conducts incomingimpulsesCell body - contains nucleus and mostcytoplasmAxon - long extension that conducts outgoingimpulses - actual nerves contain only axons,the rest is in the spinal cord or brain
    16. 16. OrgansOrgans are composed of different typesof tissues working togetherThe structure and function of an organis dependent on the tissues it is made ofOrgans work together in Organ systems
    17. 17. Organ Systems5 groups of organ systems that we willdiscuss: 1. Transport 2. Maintenance 3. Control 4. Sensory and Motor 5. Reproduction
    18. 18. Transport SystemsCardiovascular - Blood, heart, blood vessels Transports nutrients and O2 to the tissue fluid, which surrounds all cells; removes wasteLymphatic - Lymphatic vessels, lymph, lymphnodes Absorb fat and tissue fluid for redistribution, involved in defenseImmune - Spleen, thymus, cells in blood and lymph Protects the body from disease
    19. 19. Maintenance SystemsRespiratory - Lungs, trachea and associated tubes for gastransport Brings in O2 and expells CO2, exchanges these gases with air/ bloodUrinary - kidneys, bladder, transport tubes for urine Removes waste, regulates fluid levels and chemicals in bloodDigestive - Teeth, tongue, esophagus, stomach, intestines,saliva glands, liver, pancreas, etc. Receives food, processes it into usable nutrients
    20. 20. Control SystemsNervous - Brain, spinal cord, nerves conduct nerve impulses both from sensory organs to brain and from brain to rest of the bodyEndocrine - hormonal glands Secretes hormones that are signals to other parts of the body, involved in reproduction as well
    21. 21. Sensory and Motor SystemsIntegumentary - Skin and accessory structures,sensory organs Respond to external stimuli Protects body from outer environmentSkeletal - bones Anchor for muscles, provides protection for vital organsMuscular - Muscles Enables the body to move
    22. 22. Reproductive SystemObviously, different for males andfemalesMale: Testes, several ducts andassociated glands, penisFemale: Ovaries, oviducts, uterus,vagina, also associated glands
    23. 23. HomeostasisHomeostasis - the maintenance of the internalenvironment at near constant conditions The internal environment consists primarily of the blood and tissue fluid Ex: Endothermic control of body T Ex: pH stays the same inside the body Ex: blood pressure stays steady despite dehydration
    24. 24. HomeostasisAll systems contribute to homeostasis It is constant work to just maintain the constant environment needed to live Regulators of blood composition: liver and kidneys kidneys- regulate salt, blood volume, and pH liver- regulates glucose concentrations, removes toxic chemicals
    25. 25. HomeostasisControl systems involved as well Nervous system can create a fast response Ex: Escape from icy water! Endocrine system can create a slower but lasting response Ex: Store more fat
    26. 26. Negative FeedbackThis is the primary way in which the bodymaintains homeostasis‘Negative’ refers to the result of the cycleremoving the original stimulusSensor: Detects change (stimulus) inenvironmentControl center: Initiates actions that bringconditions back to normal
    27. 27. Negative FeedbackSee diagrams on board

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