Lecture 10a: Nutrition
Nutrition BasicsNutrient: a component of food thatperforms a physiological function in thebody  Provide energy  Provide bu...
Basics6 classes of nutrients:   carbohydrates   lipids   proteins   minerals   vitamins   waterEssential nutrients must be...
Macro vs. micronutrientsMacro: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins  Body requires large quantities of them  Supply energyMicro...
BasicsAll food has a mixture of nutrients in itNo single food has all essentialnutrients‘Junk food’ - basically contains h...
CarbohydratesSugars, starch, fiber   All sugars are converted to glucose for use in the   body as energy   Plants store gl...
CarbohydratesFiber: is not digestible by humans, but it shouldbe a part of the diet:   prevents constipation   prevents ab...
CarbohydratesNot all carbs are created equal!Most energy should come from carbs, but onlyfrom non-refined sources   Any sw...
LipidsLipids supply energy, but it is storedlong term as fatTwo unsaturated fatty oils are essential:  alpha-linolenic and...
LipidsUnsaturated fats are healthier and comefrom plant oilsSaturated fats come from animal foods:  butter, meats, cheese,...
LipidsHarmful lipids include saturated fats as well as trans-fats,which are hydrogenated oils and are used in many food it...
ProteinsProteins are digested into amino acids,which are used to make proteins9 are essentialMeat, eggs, milk, and other a...
ProteinsMost Americans eat twice as much protein asthey needExcess amino acids are not used; they aresimply excreted as ur...
MineralsMajor minerals: over 100 mg needed per dayTrace minerals: less than 100mg needed perdayNeeded for a variety of thi...
MineralsCa: needed for bones, nerve conduction   From dairy, green leafy veggiesK: nerve conduction, muscle contraction   ...
VitaminsOrganic compounds that regulatemetabolic activitiesAntioxidants: Vit. C, E, A  defend against free radicals  In fr...
VitaminsC: antioxidant, make collagen, maintain capillaries, bones,teeth    Citrus, LGV, tomatoesThiamine (B1): part of co...
WaterAbout 60% of the body is waterOn average, men need about 125 oz andwomen need about 90 oz of water per dayNeeded for ...
Body Mass IndexQuestionable, but useful to some degreeVery muscular people will have a higherBMI but will not necessarily ...
CaloriesOne kcal= amount of energy needed toincrease the temperature of 1L of water 1degree CYou can determine your calori...
CaloriesMetabolic functions: Wt times 1 for M, 0.9 for F, times 24    61.3 * 0.9= 55.2*24=1325Physical activity: Multiply ...
Weight and HealthIt is known that being overweight contributesto cardiovascular disease, diabetesIn order to maintain weig...
Type 2 DiabetesInsulin resistance: even in the presence ofinsulin, the cells to not uptake and store glucoseMost often see...
Cardiovascular DiseaseHYPERtension, heart attack, strokeArteries blocked by plaque as we discussed last week isoften the c...
Cardiovascular DiseaseCholesterol intake 300mg/ day or less  1 egg yolk: 210 mg!  But saturated and trans fats are even  w...
Eating Well!The goal: proper balance of nutrientsTools are available: food guide pyramidand nutrition info on foodFood gui...
1/2 diet is grains  and veggies!1/3 diet is milk,meats and beans        There is no category for sweets!
Eating WellNutrition guide on foodPay attention to serving size! They willmanipulate it to make it look good, you should n...
SummaryThere is no magic bullet to eating wellIt is best to make several small good choices each day,with healthy eating a...
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  • 10a, nutrition

    1. 1. Lecture 10a: Nutrition
    2. 2. Nutrition BasicsNutrient: a component of food thatperforms a physiological function in thebody Provide energy Provide building blocks for growth Regulate cellular metabolism Involved in homeostasis
    3. 3. Basics6 classes of nutrients: carbohydrates lipids proteins minerals vitamins waterEssential nutrients must be supplied by diet because thebody is not able to produce them
    4. 4. Macro vs. micronutrientsMacro: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins Body requires large quantities of them Supply energyMicro: vitamins, minerals Body requires smaller quantities Do not supply energy
    5. 5. BasicsAll food has a mixture of nutrients in itNo single food has all essentialnutrients‘Junk food’ - basically contains highquantities of sugars/ fats, andrelatively little else
    6. 6. CarbohydratesSugars, starch, fiber All sugars are converted to glucose for use in the body as energy Plants store glucose as starch: beans, peas, cereal grains, potatoes are high in starch Animals store glucose as glycogen: Animals are not a source of carbs except for milk and honey
    7. 7. CarbohydratesFiber: is not digestible by humans, but it shouldbe a part of the diet: prevents constipation prevents absorption of cholesterol by the small intestine So, protective against heart disease How to get it: eat whole grain, not refined foods; fresh fruit and veggies; nuts and beans
    8. 8. CarbohydratesNot all carbs are created equal!Most energy should come from carbs, but onlyfrom non-refined sources Any sweetened food is a source of refined carbs, as is white bread, pasta, rice, and potatoes Instead, choose veggies, wheat bread and pasta, and avoid sweetened foods in general
    9. 9. LipidsLipids supply energy, but it is storedlong term as fatTwo unsaturated fatty oils are essential: alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids from some fatty fish and canola oils
    10. 10. LipidsUnsaturated fats are healthier and comefrom plant oilsSaturated fats come from animal foods: butter, meats, cheese, whole milkCholesterol is a lipid and is synthesizedby the body as well as available fromsome animal foods
    11. 11. LipidsHarmful lipids include saturated fats as well as trans-fats,which are hydrogenated oils and are used in many food itemsTo reduce unhealthy lipids Eat primarily poultry/ fish/ beans for protein Remove skin and fat from meat, drain while cooking Don’t fry foods Limit butter, cream, shortening, etc Use skim milk Limit egg yolks
    12. 12. ProteinsProteins are digested into amino acids,which are used to make proteins9 are essentialMeat, eggs, milk, and other animalfoods are good protein sourcesBeans, nuts, and grains also containprotein
    13. 13. ProteinsMost Americans eat twice as much protein asthey needExcess amino acids are not used; they aresimply excreted as urineToo much protein can make kidney stonesmore likelySo, eat foods containing high protein levelssparingly
    14. 14. MineralsMajor minerals: over 100 mg needed per dayTrace minerals: less than 100mg needed perdayNeeded for a variety of things, includinghomeostasis, regulation of biochemicalreactions, etc.About 20 elements are needed
    15. 15. MineralsCa: needed for bones, nerve conduction From dairy, green leafy veggiesK: nerve conduction, muscle contraction Fruits and veggiesFe: Hemoglobin whole grains, meatsZn: Protein synthesis, wound healing, immunefunction Meats, legumes, whole grains
    16. 16. VitaminsOrganic compounds that regulatemetabolic activitiesAntioxidants: Vit. C, E, A defend against free radicals In fruits and veggiesThere is little to no evidence that takingsupplemental vitamins is that beneficial
    17. 17. VitaminsC: antioxidant, make collagen, maintain capillaries, bones,teeth Citrus, LGV, tomatoesThiamine (B1): part of coenzyme for cellular respiration,nervous system Whole grains, beans, nutsA: Vision, immune system, cellular growth yellow and green fruits and veggies, milk, cerealD: development of bones and teeth Milk, fish liver oil, made in skin when exposed to sun
    18. 18. WaterAbout 60% of the body is waterOn average, men need about 125 oz andwomen need about 90 oz of water per dayNeeded for chemical reactions,lubrication, maintenance of body temp,etc.
    19. 19. Body Mass IndexQuestionable, but useful to some degreeVery muscular people will have a higherBMI but will not necessarily beoverweightHow to do: wt * 703.1/ wt squaredHealthy: 18.5 to 24.9
    20. 20. CaloriesOne kcal= amount of energy needed toincrease the temperature of 1L of water 1degree CYou can determine your caloric needs Metabolic functions Physical activity Digestion
    21. 21. CaloriesMetabolic functions: Wt times 1 for M, 0.9 for F, times 24 61.3 * 0.9= 55.2*24=1325Physical activity: Multiply by a factor determined byphysical activity: sendentary (0.2-0.4), light (0.55-.065),moderate (.7-.75), heavy (0.8-1.2) 1325* 0.55= 728Digestion: Multiply total needs so far by 0.1 1325+728=2053 *0.1= 205TOTAL NEEDS: add each number to get the total 1325+728+205=2258
    22. 22. Weight and HealthIt is known that being overweight contributesto cardiovascular disease, diabetesIn order to maintain weight, you must not eatmore calories than you useFad diets typically do not work, the only wayto loose weight is to have a healthy lifestyle Eat properly Exercise
    23. 23. Type 2 DiabetesInsulin resistance: even in the presence ofinsulin, the cells to not uptake and store glucoseMost often seen in obese peopleTheory: consumption of many high sugar foodscauses the pancreas to produce lots and lots ofinsulin, and the cells become resistant to itProblems: risk blindness, kidney disease,cardiovascular disease
    24. 24. Cardiovascular DiseaseHYPERtension, heart attack, strokeArteries blocked by plaque as we discussed last week isoften the cause Cholesterol is part of plaque, as are saturated fatsHDL: ‘good’ takes cholesterol from cells to liverLDL: ‘bad’ takes cholesterol from liver to cellsSaturated and trans fats raise LDL levelsUnsaturated fatty acids lower LDL: olive and canolaoil, nuts, some coldwater fish
    25. 25. Cardiovascular DiseaseCholesterol intake 300mg/ day or less 1 egg yolk: 210 mg! But saturated and trans fats are even worse
    26. 26. Eating Well!The goal: proper balance of nutrientsTools are available: food guide pyramidand nutrition info on foodFood guide pyramid, but out by USDA emphasizes what foods need to be eaten, and provides a guide for how much to eat
    27. 27. 1/2 diet is grains and veggies!1/3 diet is milk,meats and beans There is no category for sweets!
    28. 28. Eating WellNutrition guide on foodPay attention to serving size! They willmanipulate it to make it look good, you should notnecessarily eat an entire servingCalories, given in kcal: per serving size% daily value: % of that nutrient, based on 2000calorie dietLOOK at the guide in the store- knowing the fatcontent, for example, may make you think twice
    29. 29. SummaryThere is no magic bullet to eating wellIt is best to make several small good choices each day,with healthy eating as the goalAim for: low saturated fat intake a lot of whole grains a lot of veggies don’t overdo protein low in salt and sugar

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