Chap 7 control and coordination qa


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Chap 7 control and coordination qa

  1. 1. Class X: BiologyChapter 2: Control and CoordinationDrawings to be drawn in your noteFig-1 human brainFig-2 neuronFig-31
  2. 2. Fig-4 neuro muscular junction1) Why control and coordination is essential in living organisms?A system of control and coordination is essential in living organisms so that the different body partscan function as a single unit to maintain homeostasis as well as respond to various stimuli.2) What does a synapse do?• It allows the information to pass from one neuron to another.• It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction only.• It helps in information processing by combining the effects of all impulses received.OrDefine synapse.A synapse is the junction of the terminal branches of the axon of one neuron with the dendrites or cellbody of another neuron. It is the site of transfer of nerve impulse from one neuron to another.3) How control and coordination is brought in animals?In animals, the nervous system and hormonal system are responsible for control and coordination.4) Define neurons.Neurons are specialized cells of the nervous system. They use electrical and chemical signals fortransferring information.5) Define receptors.Receptors are specialized tips of the nerve fibres that collect the information to be conducted by thenerves.6) Show the pathway for nerve impulse conduction in neurons.Nerve impulses travel in the following manner from one neuron to the2
  3. 3. next : Dendrites _ Cell body _ Axon _ Nerve endings at thetip of axon _ Synapse _ Dendrite of next neuron.7) Briefly explain the process of nerve impulse conduction by neurons.Chemicals released from axon tip of one neuron, cross the synapse or neuromuscular junction toreach the next cell (neuron or muscle fibre).8) Identify 2 parts of our nervous system.Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are parts of our nervous system.9) What is meant by central nervous system?Central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord.10) Give the importance of spinal cord during reflex action.Spinal cord controls the reflex actions and conducts messages between different parts of the bodyand brain.11) Define reflex action.Reflex action is an automatic, rapid and immediate reaction to a stimulus and is below the level ofconsciousness. No thinking is involved in reflex action.OrA reflex action may be defined as a spontaneous, autonomic and mechanical response to a stimuluscontrolled by the spinal cord without the involvement of brain.12) Define reflex arc. Show the pathway of reflex arc.Reflex arc is the neural pathway that mediates a reflex action.Pathway of reflex arc: Receptor _ Sensory neuron _ Relay neuron _ Motor neuron _ EffectorOrStimulus received by the sensory receptors in the sensory organImpulse generated and carried along by the sensory neuron toward the spinal cordImpulse arrives at the nerve endings of sensory neuron in the grey Matter of spinal cordNeurotransmitter released at nerve endings3
  4. 4. Impulse pass across the relay neuron to motor neuronImpulse travels away from spinal cord along motor neuronThe nerve endings of motor neuron connect effector organ like muscleResponse produced by effector organFig. 28.10 Sequence of events in a reflex arc13) What is the role of spinal cord and brain in the reflex action?The sensory neurons of reflex arcs synapse in the spinal cord which then activates the spinal motorneurons without delay to execute a quick action, especially in case of emergencies. The brain alsoreceives the information while the reflex action occurs.14) What are the 3 parts of human brain?The 3 main parts of the brain are forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.15) Identify the regions in forebrain and hindbrain.The largest part of the brain, the forebrain, is the main thinking region. It is made up of cerebrum,hypothalamus and thalamus. Cerebellum, pons and medulla constitute the hindbrain.16) Which the first and second largest part in human brain?Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain whereas the cerebellum is the second largest part.17) Give the parts of the brain and their functions.Part of brain FunctionCerebrum Governs intelligence, thinking, memory and other mental abilities,voluntary actions, sensations, emotions and speech.HypothalamusCoordinates messages from the autonomous nervous system, controlscertain involuntary actions, as well as emotional behavior and forms anaxis with the pituitary.Thalamus Functions as major coordinating center for sensory and motor4
  5. 5. signaling.Midbrain Acts as the coordinating centre between forebrain and hindbrain; alsocontrols certain involuntary movementsCerebellum Responsible for precision and fine control of voluntary movements aswell as maintaining posture and equilibrium of the bodyPons Relays impulses between the lower cerebellum and spinal cord, andhigher parts of the brain like the cerebrum and mid brain; alsoregulates respiration.Medulla Contains vital centres for controlling blood pressure, respiration,swallowing, salivation, vomiting, sneezing and coughing.18) How our brain is protected?Brain is protected by a bony box called cranium, within which are present 3 layers of fluid-filledmembranes for absorbing shock.19) Identify the components of peripheral nervous system.Peripheral nervous system consists of cranial nerves and spinal nervesand assists in transmitting information between central nervoussystem and rest of the body.20) Can you state few responses shown by our nervous system?Reflex actions, voluntary actions and involuntary actions are the various types of responses shown bythe nervous system.21) What is the role of central nervous system in muscular movements?The sense organs detect changes in surroundings and pass this information to the central nervoussystem, which after processing the information, acts through the muscles.22) How muscles tissues can make their movement?The movements of muscle tissues are brought about by the contraction and relaxation of thecontractile proteins in response to nerve impulses.5
  6. 6. 23) Do plants have any nervous and muscular system for signal condution?No, plants lack nervous and muscular system.24) What are the ways plants will respond to stimuli?Plants respond to stimuli by showing 2 types of movements – growth independent and growthdependent.25) What kind of movement is taking place in touch-me-not plant?In the case of touch-me-not plant growth independent movements are usually quicker than growthdependent ones, and involve the use of electrochemical signals by the plant. To achieve thismovement, the plant cells change shape by altering their water content.26) Give few characteristics of growth dependent movements.Growth dependent movements or tropic movements are slow, occurring either towards or away fromthe stimulus.27) Identify few factors in the environment which leads to tropic movements in plants.Tropic movements are shown in response to environmental factors such as light, gravity, water andchemicals.28) Compare plant roots and plant shoots.Plant roots are positively geotropic and negatively phototropic whereas plant shoots are usuallynegatively geotropic and positively phototropic.29) Specify one chemotropic movement in plants.Pollen tubes show chemotropism by growing towards the ovules.30) What is the other form of signal used by plants and animals other than electro chemicalsignals?In addition to electrochemical signals, plants and animals use hormones for control and coordination.31) List some Important plant hormones and their functions.Plant hormone Function6
  7. 7. Auxin Cell elongation during growth of shoot region.Gibberellin Growth of stemCytokinin Cell divisionAbscisic acid Inhibits growthEthylene Ripening of fruits32) What causes bending of plant stem towards light?Auxin causes the bending of plant stem towards light as well as thecurling of plant tendrils around a support.33) Is animal hormones can bring any directional growth?Animal hormones do not bring about directional growth depending on environmental cues, butpromote controlled growth in various areas to maintain the body design.34) Mention some names of endocrine glands in the human body.The various endocrine glands in humans are hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroidgland, parathyroid glands, thymus, pancreas, adrenal glands, ovary (in female) and testis (in males).35) Mention some important hormones and their functions in human body:Hormone EndocrineglandFunctionGrowthhormonePituitary Regulates growth and development of bodyThyroxin Thyroid gland Controls carbohydrate, protein and fatMetabolismAdrenaline Adrenal gland Prepares the body to deal with emergency7
  8. 8. situationsInsulin Pancreas Regulates blood sugar levelsTestosterone Testis Causes development of sexual organs andsecondary sexual characteristics in malesOestrogen Ovary Causes development of sexual organs andsecondary sexual characteristics in females35) Show the pathway for effect of adrenal hormones during emergency.In case of flight or fight reaction to an emergency situation,Adrenal glands _ release adrenaline into blood _ which acts on heartand other tissues _ causes faster heart beat _ more oxygen tomuscles _ reduced blood supply to digestive system and skin _diversion of blood to skeletal muscles _ increase in breathing rate.36) Identify the element deficiency which is related to thyroid function. Mention the problemsdue to its deficiency.Deficiency of iodine causes goiter whereas deficiency of growthhormone and insulin causes dwarfism and diabetes respectively.37)How hormones can be controlled?Feedback mechanisms are present to regulate the hormone action.38) Give the difference between nervous and endocrine systemNervous system Endocrine systemMode of communication- ElectricalimpulsesMode of communication - ChemicalcompoundsSpeed of communication - Very quick SlowCan reach Only cells connected byVery fast way of communications. All cells ofthe body can receive the messages.8
  9. 9. nervous system.Continuity - Cannot continuously transmitimpulses.Continuity - Can act steadily and persistently39. What are the functions of cerebrum?The cerebrum performs the following functions:i. It governs our mental abilities like thinking, reasoning, learning, memorisingand intelligence.ii. It controls our will, emotions and speech.iii. It controls feeling of love, admiration and hatred.iv. It controls all involuntary functions.40. What are the functions of cerebellum?The cerebellum performs the following functions:i. It maintains equilibrium (balance) of the body.ii. It controls posture of the body.iii. It coordinates muscular movement.41. What is the importance of Medulla.It is the lowermost part of the brain located at the base of the skull.The medulla oblongata performs the following functions:i. It controls the internal organs like movement of lungs, heart etc., by regulating breathing and heart-beat.ii. It controls vital reflex centres such as cardiac centre, respiratory centre and centres for swallowing,sneezing, coughing and vomiting.42. Mention the functions of spinal cord.The spinal cord performs the following functions:i. It controls the reflexes below the neck region.ii. It conducts sensory impulses from the skin and muscles to the brain.iii. It conducts motor response from brain to the muscles of trunk and limbs.43. What are sense organs?Sense organs are the organs through which we sense or feel change in the external environment.44. What are hormones?A hormone is a chemical secreted by an endocrine gland and carried by bloodor lymph to a target organ elsewhere in the body to stimulate a specific activity.45. Locate the endocrine glands9
  10. 10. Fill in the blanks.i) The central nervous system consists of _________ and ___________ii) Pathway meant for transmission of the message from the receptors tomodulators is called _____________ pathway.iii) ___________________ nerves carry impulse from brain or spinal cordto the effectors.iv) The stimulus from the receptor organ is received by the __________,conducted to the cell body of neuron and finally to the __________organ.v) A synapse is the point of contact between the terminal branches of the_________ of one neuron with the _________ of another neuron.Fill in the blanksi. __________ carry information from sensory receptors to central nervoussystem.10
  11. 11. ii. __________________ system receives and processes information fromreceptors in the skin, voluntary muscles and eyes.iii. The pathway followed by sensory or motor nerves in a reflex action iscalled __________________A hormone is carried by _________ or ________ to the target organ.iv) Thyroid stimulating hormone is secreted by ___________v) ________ hormone regulates the conversion of glucose to ___________________ hormone controls the reabsorption of water inkidney tubules.vii) Hypoactivity of thyroid gland leads to__________Multiple choice type questions.Tick the most appropriate answer of the following.1. Which of the following carry impulse from brain to effector?a) Sensory neuron b) Motor neuronc) Connecting neuron d) Mixed nerve2. Short thread like branches of nerve cell are calleda) dendrites b) synapsec) nodes of Ranvier d) neuron3. A chemical known as neurotransmitter is released from the ends ofa) axon b) synapsec) nodes of Ranvier d) neuron4. The pituitary gland is founda) in the neck b) at the base of the brainc) beneath the stomach d) near the kidneys5. The transparent window at the front of the eyeball is calleda) cornea b) irisc) cone d) retina6. Hormones are carried around in the body bya) blood b) nervesc) lymph d) both blood and lymph7. Which of the following glands secretes the hormone thyroxin?a) Pituitary gland b) Thyroid glandc) Brain d) Pancreas8. Which of the following hormones is secreted by the pancreas?a) Growth hormone b) Thyroxinc) Insulin d) Prolactin11
  12. 12. 9. The disease cretinism is caused due toa) hypoactivity of pituitary gland b) hyperactivity of pituitary glandc) hypoactivity of thyroid gland d) hyperactivity of thyroid gland10. Hyposecretion of insulin causesa) Goitre b) Cretinismc) Diabetes insipidus d) Diabetes mellitus12