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Control and
Coordination
Class X- Science-Chapter 7 Biology
by Eswari Kumaravel M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed.
Co-ordination
• Coordination:
o Various organs working together in a systematic,
controlled and efficient way to produce proper
response to various stimuli is known as coordination.
• Why is it necessary?
o Each organ in an organism is specialized to perform a
particular function.
o It is necessary that various organs work together to
produce proper response to stimulus.
Control and Coordination in Humans
• Systems responsible for Coordination:
o Nervous System: through electrical impulse.
o Endocrine Glands: through hormones
• Hormones
o Hormones are chemical messengers made of proteins.
o Secreted by endocrine glands into blood stream.
o Act on specific tissues or organs known as target
organs.
o Production of Hormones and functioning of hormones
is controlled by Nervous system.
Hormonal Coordination
Nervous
System
Stimuli
‘Secrete”
Pushes Hormone
into Blood
Acts on the target
Organ
Nervous System vs. Endocrine System
Endocrine System Nervous System
No direct connection with organs or
tissues.
Direct connection and control over
tissues and organs
Information of coordination
transmitted slowly
Information is transmitted very fast
Effect is long lasting Effect is short-lived
Nervous coordination Hormonal coordination
Network of nerves connect different body
parts to Central Nervous System
Hormones from Endocrine Gland,
reach different parts through blood.
Messages through Nerves Messages through hormones
Nerves and Central Nervous System
control and coordinate different functions.
Every function is controlled and
coordinated by special Hormone
As it is an impulse, there is no such thing
as quantity affecting organs.
Increase and decrease of Hormone
quantity affect target organs
Nervous System
• Animals have specialized
structures called sense
organs (receptors) to
receive external stimuli.
• Stimulus
o One which brings
response in an organism.
• Impulse
o Nerves pass information
through electro-chemical
signals known as
impulse.
Types of Receptors
• Photo Receptor
o For light. e.g. eye
• Audio Receptor
o For Sound e.g. Ear.
• Olfactory Receptor
o For Smell e.g. Nose
• Gustatory Receptor:
o For Taste e.g. Tongue
Vertebrate Nervous System
• It is composed of two main
components:
• Central Nervous System
(CNS)
o Includes brain and spinal
cord.
• Peripheral Nervous
System
o Includes cranial, spinal
and visceral nerves.
o For communication
between CNS and other
parts of the body.
Protective Feature of CNS
• Brain is protected by the bony
cranium.
• It is covered by three
membranes called Meninges
• Space between Meninges is
filled with Cerebro Spinal
Fluid. It protects brain from
Mechanical Shocks.
• Meninges and Cerebro spinal
fluid covers Spinal Cord too.
• Spinal Cord is protected by
Vertebral Column.
Peripheral Nervous System
• Peripheral Nervous
System is
composed of
Cranial Nerves and
Spinal Nerves.
• 12 Pair of Cranial
nerves come out of
brain and cover the
organs in head.
• 31 pair of spinal
nerves come out of
spinal cord and
cover all the organs
below head region.
Structure of Neuron
• Structural and functional unit of Nervous system is
neuron. Neuron is a cell.
o Dendrites: Receives information from axon of another cell
and conducts the messages towards cell body.
o Cell Body: Contains nucleus, Mitochondria and other
organelle.
o Axon: Conducts messages away from cell body
o Synapse: Small gap between two adjacent neurons. Here
nerve impulse passes from one neuron to other.
Transmission of Impulse
• Electrical impulse is acquired by Dendrite in the neuron.
Electrical impulse travels through
Dendrite
Cell
body
Axon
Nerve
Ending
Types of Neurons
Sensory Neuron
• Conveys
Stimulus from
Receptors to
Brain
Associative
Neuron
• Interprets
Stimulus
• Gives
appropriate
command to
Motor Neuron
Motor Neuron
• Conveys motor
commands to
effectors
(muscles /
glands)
Autonomous Nervous System
• Autonomous Nervous System
o Chain of nerve ganglion that runs along the spinal cord.
o It controls all involuntary actions.
o Two types 1. Sympathetic and 2. Parasympathetic nervous
system.
Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous
System
Heightens the activity of an
organ as per need
Slows down the activity of an
organ. Has a calming effect
For e.g. It increases breathing
rate and heart rate during
running.
This is to meet increase in
oxygen demand
For e.g. breathing rate and heart
rate slows down during sleep
Autonomous Nervous System
Voluntary & Involuntary Actions
Factors Voluntary Action Involuntary Action
Type of Response Not automatic
(With awareness)
Automatic
(without awareness)
Part of the Brain that
controls actions
Cerebrum Medulla Oblangata
Speed Slow Fast
Nervous pathway Receptor → Spinal
Cord → Cerebrum →
Spinal Cord →
Effector
Receptor → Spinal
Cord → Medulla
Oblangata → Spinal
Cord → Effector
Examples Speaking, Walking,
Writing etc
Heart beat,
Respiration,
Peristalsis etc.
Reflex Action
• Reflex Action is an automatic and rapid response to
a stimulus.
Response
Receptor
(Sense Organ)
Effectors
(Muscles /
glands)
Sensory
Neurons
Motor
Neurons
Spinal Cord
Stimulus
Reflex Actions - Example
Reflex Arc
• Reflex Arc is the pathway along which nerve impulse
travels during the reflex action.
Stimulus Receptors Sensory Neurons
(sense organs)
Spinal Cord
Response Effectors Relay Neurons
(Muscles / glands)
Reflex Arc
Differences
Voluntary Action Involuntary Action Reflex Action
Not automatic
(with awareness)
Actions which do not
need thinking and
performed
unknowingly
Rapid automatic
response to a stimulus
Controlled by Brain
(Cerebrum)
Controlled by Brain
(Medulla Oblangata)
Controlled by Spinal
Cord
Slow Fast Sudden and Fast
Example: Walking Example: Heart Beat Example: Touching a hot
pan
How Nervous Tissues cause Muscular movements?
Nerve Impulse
reaches muscle
Muscle fibres
move
Proteins change
shape and
arrangement
Muscle Cells
Shrinks
This makes
muscle cells
contract
This movement is
caused by Special
proteins
How Nervous Tissues cause Muscular movements?
Structure of Brain
• Brain is the highest
coordinating Centre
• It is protected by
cranium.
• It is covered by three
membranes. Space
between membranes
is called Meninges.
• Meninges is filled
with Cerebro spinal
fluid
Structure of Brain
• Cerebrum
• Olfactory Lobe
Fore
Brain
•Connects fore brain
& Hind brain
•Controls reflex
involving eyes &
Ears
Mid
Brain
•Cerebellum
•Pons
•Medulla Oblangata
Hind
Brain
Structure of Brain
• Visual
Reception
Occipital
Lobe
•Auditory
Reception
Temporal
Lobe
•Touch, Smell,
Temperature
•Conscious association
Parietal
Lobe
•Muscular
Activities
Frontal
Lobe
OlfactoryLobe
Functions of Brain
Part Function
Cerebrum • Main thinking part of brain
• Responsible for reasoning, speech, intelligence, sigh,
hearing and usage of information.
Thalamus • Send sensory information to Cerebrum
Hypothalamus • Controls body temperature
• Maintain Water Balance
• Controls urge of eating, drinking
• Controls pituitary Gland
Cerebellum • Controls and coordinates different muscular actions
• Maintains posture and equilibrium of the body
during various activities such as walking, drinking
riding etc.
Pons • Controls breathing rate
• Controls facial expression, mastication of food etc.
Medulla Oblangata • Controls involuntary actions such as Breathing, Blood
Pressure, Movement of alimentary canal etc.
• Regulates reflex responses like salivation and
vomiting.
Endocrine Glands
• Endocrine glands
are ductless glands
that secrete
hormones directly
into blood.
Functions of Endocrine Glands
Gland Secretion Hormone Function
Pituitary
Gland
Growth Hormone Regulates the growth
Hypothalamus Releasing
Hormone
Regulates the secretion of
hormones from Pituitary Gland
Thyroid Thyroxine Controls metabolic rate of
carbohydrates, fats and proteins
Parathyroid a. Calcitonin
b. Parathormone
Lowers blood calcium level
Increases Calcium and decreases
Phosphate level
Adrenal Adrenaline Increases Heart rate, respiration,
blood pressure during
emergency situations.
Functions of Endocrine Glands
Gland Secretion Hormone Function
Pancreas a. Insulin
b. Glucagon
Decreases blood glucose
Increases blood glucose
Testis Testosterone Regulates male secondary sexual
characteristics
Helps in the formation of sperms
Ovary Progesterone
and Estrogen
Progesterone:
• Helps to prepare the wall of uterus for
attachment of fertilized egg.
• Maintains Pregnancy
Estrogen:
• Controls development of female sex
organs, ovulation etc.
• controls Menstrual cycle
Thymus Thymosin Produces immunity
Pineal Melatonin Stimulates muscle contraction
Feedback mechanism
The timing and amount of hormone released is
regulated by feedback mechanism.
• If glucose level increases
in blood, pancreas secretes
required amount of insulin.
• Insulin reduces the glucose
level.
Why is Iodine Salt advisable?
• Iodine is required by Thyroid to make Thyroxin
hormone.
• Thyroxin regulates metabolism of carbohydrate,
protein and fats.
• Iodine deficiency in our diet causes Goitre, where
Thyroid gland enlarges causing swelling in neck.
• Iodised common salt contains proper content of
Iodine. To avoid deficiency of Iodine, iodised salt is
recommended.
Coordination in
Plants
Coordination in Plants
• Only Chemical coordination.
• No brain like structure in plants to adapt themselves
according to change in surroundings.
• Growth is controlled by growth hormones.
Plant
movements
Tropic
Movement
Nastic
Movement
Tropic and Nastic Movements - Differences
Feature Nastic Movement Tropic Movement
Growth Growth independent
movement
Growth dependent
movements
Time of action Immediate Slow
Response to
stimulus
Non-directional Directional
Reason for
Action
Change in turgor Cell division
Examples Folding of leaves of
touch me not (mimosa),
opening and closing of
stomata.
Phototropism,
Geotropism,
Hydrotropism,
Chemotropism
Tropic Movements
• Response of an organism in the direction of stimuli or away
from it is called tropic movement or tropism.
o It may be negative (away from stimulus) or positive (towards
stimulus).
Phototropism Geotropism
• Stem tip grows in the
direction of light.
• Positively Phototropic.
• Response of organism to
gravity.
• Root grows towards pull
of gravity. Positively
Geotropic
Tropic Movements
Chemotropism Hydrotropism
• Response to chemicals.
• Pollen tubes grow
towards a chemical
produced by ovule.
• Response of organism to
Water
• Root grows towards
presence of water.
Tropic Movements
Thigmotropism
• Response to touch or solid surface.
• Tendrils and other climbers are
positively Thigmotropic
Plant Hormones
• Phyto hormones help in control and coordination in
plants.
• Present in very small quantities in plant tissues.
• Produced in any part of the plant and transmitted to other
parts by diffusion.
Plant Hormones
• Produced at shoot tip
• Helps in growth of stem
Auxin
• Helps in vegetative growthGibberellins
•Promotes cell division
• Present mainly in fruits and
seeds
Cytokinins
• Inhibits growth and induces
wilting of leaves
Abscissic Acid
• Helps in ripening of FruitEthylene
Activities
Activity – 7.1
• Put some sugar in your mouth and observe how it tastes.
• Block the nose and eat sugar again. Observe the
difference in taste.
• While eating lunch, block your nose in the same way and
note your observation.
• Observation:
o We don’t get the same taste of food and sugar as we had
earlier.
Activity – 7.2
Place wire mesh on
a conical flask with
water
Place 2 or 3
germinated bean
seeds on wire mesh
Keep the conical
flask in a card
board box.
Keep the open side
of the box facing
light coming from
window
Leave it for 3 day
Activity – 7.2
• Observation: Shoot bends and moves towards the
light.
Activity – 7.2
• Continued..
o Rearrange the flask so that the shoots are away from light
and the roots towards light.
o Leave it undisturbed for few days.
• Observation:
o Old Parts of the root and shoot will change their direction.
o There will be differences in the growth of shoot.
• Conclusion:
o Light influences the direction of growth of shoot.
Ncert   class 10 - science - chapter 7 - control and coordination

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Ncert class 10 - science - chapter 7 - control and coordination

  • 1. Control and Coordination Class X- Science-Chapter 7 Biology by Eswari Kumaravel M.Sc., M.Phil., B.Ed.
  • 2. Co-ordination • Coordination: o Various organs working together in a systematic, controlled and efficient way to produce proper response to various stimuli is known as coordination. • Why is it necessary? o Each organ in an organism is specialized to perform a particular function. o It is necessary that various organs work together to produce proper response to stimulus.
  • 3. Control and Coordination in Humans • Systems responsible for Coordination: o Nervous System: through electrical impulse. o Endocrine Glands: through hormones • Hormones o Hormones are chemical messengers made of proteins. o Secreted by endocrine glands into blood stream. o Act on specific tissues or organs known as target organs. o Production of Hormones and functioning of hormones is controlled by Nervous system.
  • 5. Nervous System vs. Endocrine System Endocrine System Nervous System No direct connection with organs or tissues. Direct connection and control over tissues and organs Information of coordination transmitted slowly Information is transmitted very fast Effect is long lasting Effect is short-lived Nervous coordination Hormonal coordination Network of nerves connect different body parts to Central Nervous System Hormones from Endocrine Gland, reach different parts through blood. Messages through Nerves Messages through hormones Nerves and Central Nervous System control and coordinate different functions. Every function is controlled and coordinated by special Hormone As it is an impulse, there is no such thing as quantity affecting organs. Increase and decrease of Hormone quantity affect target organs
  • 6. Nervous System • Animals have specialized structures called sense organs (receptors) to receive external stimuli. • Stimulus o One which brings response in an organism. • Impulse o Nerves pass information through electro-chemical signals known as impulse.
  • 7. Types of Receptors • Photo Receptor o For light. e.g. eye • Audio Receptor o For Sound e.g. Ear. • Olfactory Receptor o For Smell e.g. Nose • Gustatory Receptor: o For Taste e.g. Tongue
  • 8. Vertebrate Nervous System • It is composed of two main components: • Central Nervous System (CNS) o Includes brain and spinal cord. • Peripheral Nervous System o Includes cranial, spinal and visceral nerves. o For communication between CNS and other parts of the body.
  • 9. Protective Feature of CNS • Brain is protected by the bony cranium. • It is covered by three membranes called Meninges • Space between Meninges is filled with Cerebro Spinal Fluid. It protects brain from Mechanical Shocks. • Meninges and Cerebro spinal fluid covers Spinal Cord too. • Spinal Cord is protected by Vertebral Column.
  • 10. Peripheral Nervous System • Peripheral Nervous System is composed of Cranial Nerves and Spinal Nerves. • 12 Pair of Cranial nerves come out of brain and cover the organs in head. • 31 pair of spinal nerves come out of spinal cord and cover all the organs below head region.
  • 11. Structure of Neuron • Structural and functional unit of Nervous system is neuron. Neuron is a cell. o Dendrites: Receives information from axon of another cell and conducts the messages towards cell body. o Cell Body: Contains nucleus, Mitochondria and other organelle. o Axon: Conducts messages away from cell body o Synapse: Small gap between two adjacent neurons. Here nerve impulse passes from one neuron to other.
  • 12. Transmission of Impulse • Electrical impulse is acquired by Dendrite in the neuron. Electrical impulse travels through Dendrite Cell body Axon Nerve Ending
  • 13. Types of Neurons Sensory Neuron • Conveys Stimulus from Receptors to Brain Associative Neuron • Interprets Stimulus • Gives appropriate command to Motor Neuron Motor Neuron • Conveys motor commands to effectors (muscles / glands)
  • 14. Autonomous Nervous System • Autonomous Nervous System o Chain of nerve ganglion that runs along the spinal cord. o It controls all involuntary actions. o Two types 1. Sympathetic and 2. Parasympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Heightens the activity of an organ as per need Slows down the activity of an organ. Has a calming effect For e.g. It increases breathing rate and heart rate during running. This is to meet increase in oxygen demand For e.g. breathing rate and heart rate slows down during sleep
  • 16. Voluntary & Involuntary Actions Factors Voluntary Action Involuntary Action Type of Response Not automatic (With awareness) Automatic (without awareness) Part of the Brain that controls actions Cerebrum Medulla Oblangata Speed Slow Fast Nervous pathway Receptor → Spinal Cord → Cerebrum → Spinal Cord → Effector Receptor → Spinal Cord → Medulla Oblangata → Spinal Cord → Effector Examples Speaking, Walking, Writing etc Heart beat, Respiration, Peristalsis etc.
  • 17. Reflex Action • Reflex Action is an automatic and rapid response to a stimulus. Response Receptor (Sense Organ) Effectors (Muscles / glands) Sensory Neurons Motor Neurons Spinal Cord Stimulus
  • 18. Reflex Actions - Example
  • 19. Reflex Arc • Reflex Arc is the pathway along which nerve impulse travels during the reflex action. Stimulus Receptors Sensory Neurons (sense organs) Spinal Cord Response Effectors Relay Neurons (Muscles / glands)
  • 21. Differences Voluntary Action Involuntary Action Reflex Action Not automatic (with awareness) Actions which do not need thinking and performed unknowingly Rapid automatic response to a stimulus Controlled by Brain (Cerebrum) Controlled by Brain (Medulla Oblangata) Controlled by Spinal Cord Slow Fast Sudden and Fast Example: Walking Example: Heart Beat Example: Touching a hot pan
  • 22. How Nervous Tissues cause Muscular movements? Nerve Impulse reaches muscle Muscle fibres move Proteins change shape and arrangement Muscle Cells Shrinks This makes muscle cells contract This movement is caused by Special proteins
  • 23. How Nervous Tissues cause Muscular movements?
  • 24. Structure of Brain • Brain is the highest coordinating Centre • It is protected by cranium. • It is covered by three membranes. Space between membranes is called Meninges. • Meninges is filled with Cerebro spinal fluid
  • 25. Structure of Brain • Cerebrum • Olfactory Lobe Fore Brain •Connects fore brain & Hind brain •Controls reflex involving eyes & Ears Mid Brain •Cerebellum •Pons •Medulla Oblangata Hind Brain
  • 26. Structure of Brain • Visual Reception Occipital Lobe •Auditory Reception Temporal Lobe •Touch, Smell, Temperature •Conscious association Parietal Lobe •Muscular Activities Frontal Lobe OlfactoryLobe
  • 27. Functions of Brain Part Function Cerebrum • Main thinking part of brain • Responsible for reasoning, speech, intelligence, sigh, hearing and usage of information. Thalamus • Send sensory information to Cerebrum Hypothalamus • Controls body temperature • Maintain Water Balance • Controls urge of eating, drinking • Controls pituitary Gland Cerebellum • Controls and coordinates different muscular actions • Maintains posture and equilibrium of the body during various activities such as walking, drinking riding etc. Pons • Controls breathing rate • Controls facial expression, mastication of food etc. Medulla Oblangata • Controls involuntary actions such as Breathing, Blood Pressure, Movement of alimentary canal etc. • Regulates reflex responses like salivation and vomiting.
  • 28. Endocrine Glands • Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into blood.
  • 29. Functions of Endocrine Glands Gland Secretion Hormone Function Pituitary Gland Growth Hormone Regulates the growth Hypothalamus Releasing Hormone Regulates the secretion of hormones from Pituitary Gland Thyroid Thyroxine Controls metabolic rate of carbohydrates, fats and proteins Parathyroid a. Calcitonin b. Parathormone Lowers blood calcium level Increases Calcium and decreases Phosphate level Adrenal Adrenaline Increases Heart rate, respiration, blood pressure during emergency situations.
  • 30. Functions of Endocrine Glands Gland Secretion Hormone Function Pancreas a. Insulin b. Glucagon Decreases blood glucose Increases blood glucose Testis Testosterone Regulates male secondary sexual characteristics Helps in the formation of sperms Ovary Progesterone and Estrogen Progesterone: • Helps to prepare the wall of uterus for attachment of fertilized egg. • Maintains Pregnancy Estrogen: • Controls development of female sex organs, ovulation etc. • controls Menstrual cycle Thymus Thymosin Produces immunity Pineal Melatonin Stimulates muscle contraction
  • 31. Feedback mechanism The timing and amount of hormone released is regulated by feedback mechanism. • If glucose level increases in blood, pancreas secretes required amount of insulin. • Insulin reduces the glucose level.
  • 32. Why is Iodine Salt advisable? • Iodine is required by Thyroid to make Thyroxin hormone. • Thyroxin regulates metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fats. • Iodine deficiency in our diet causes Goitre, where Thyroid gland enlarges causing swelling in neck. • Iodised common salt contains proper content of Iodine. To avoid deficiency of Iodine, iodised salt is recommended.
  • 34. Coordination in Plants • Only Chemical coordination. • No brain like structure in plants to adapt themselves according to change in surroundings. • Growth is controlled by growth hormones. Plant movements Tropic Movement Nastic Movement
  • 35. Tropic and Nastic Movements - Differences Feature Nastic Movement Tropic Movement Growth Growth independent movement Growth dependent movements Time of action Immediate Slow Response to stimulus Non-directional Directional Reason for Action Change in turgor Cell division Examples Folding of leaves of touch me not (mimosa), opening and closing of stomata. Phototropism, Geotropism, Hydrotropism, Chemotropism
  • 36. Tropic Movements • Response of an organism in the direction of stimuli or away from it is called tropic movement or tropism. o It may be negative (away from stimulus) or positive (towards stimulus). Phototropism Geotropism • Stem tip grows in the direction of light. • Positively Phototropic. • Response of organism to gravity. • Root grows towards pull of gravity. Positively Geotropic
  • 37. Tropic Movements Chemotropism Hydrotropism • Response to chemicals. • Pollen tubes grow towards a chemical produced by ovule. • Response of organism to Water • Root grows towards presence of water.
  • 38. Tropic Movements Thigmotropism • Response to touch or solid surface. • Tendrils and other climbers are positively Thigmotropic
  • 39. Plant Hormones • Phyto hormones help in control and coordination in plants. • Present in very small quantities in plant tissues. • Produced in any part of the plant and transmitted to other parts by diffusion.
  • 40. Plant Hormones • Produced at shoot tip • Helps in growth of stem Auxin • Helps in vegetative growthGibberellins •Promotes cell division • Present mainly in fruits and seeds Cytokinins • Inhibits growth and induces wilting of leaves Abscissic Acid • Helps in ripening of FruitEthylene
  • 42. Activity – 7.1 • Put some sugar in your mouth and observe how it tastes. • Block the nose and eat sugar again. Observe the difference in taste. • While eating lunch, block your nose in the same way and note your observation. • Observation: o We don’t get the same taste of food and sugar as we had earlier.
  • 43. Activity – 7.2 Place wire mesh on a conical flask with water Place 2 or 3 germinated bean seeds on wire mesh Keep the conical flask in a card board box. Keep the open side of the box facing light coming from window Leave it for 3 day
  • 44. Activity – 7.2 • Observation: Shoot bends and moves towards the light.
  • 45. Activity – 7.2 • Continued.. o Rearrange the flask so that the shoots are away from light and the roots towards light. o Leave it undisturbed for few days. • Observation: o Old Parts of the root and shoot will change their direction. o There will be differences in the growth of shoot. • Conclusion: o Light influences the direction of growth of shoot.