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Chapter 06 ffi
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Chapter 06 ffi

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  • 1. Essentials of Fire Fighting 6th Edition Firefighter I Chapter 6 — Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment
  • 2. Describe the purpose of personal protective equipment. Learning Objective 1 6–2
  • 3. Describe characteristics of each type of personal protective equipment. Learning Objective 2 6–3
  • 4. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes three basic components. 6–4
  • 5. Personal protective equipment is designed to meet two purposes. 6–5
  • 6. 6–6 Structural fire fighting protective clothing must meet NFPA® 1971.
  • 7. 6–7 Altering protective clothing may endanger lives and have other effects.
  • 8. DISCUSSION QUESTION Why is it important to NEVER alter PPC components? 6–8
  • 9. Personal protective equipment has several design benefits and limitations. 6–9
  • 10. Helmets must be worn correctly to properly protect and identify firefighters. 6–10
  • 11. Eye protection devices are required by NFPA® 1500 and come in many varieties. 6–11
  • 12. Protective hoods provide a continuous layer of protection between coat and helmet. 6–12
  • 13. REVIEW QUESTION What is the purpose of personal protective equipment? 6–13
  • 14. Protective coats are required by NFPA® 1971 to have three layers, which provide limited protection. a. Outer shell b. Moisture barrier c. Thermal barrier 6–14
  • 15. WARNING! All layers of the protective coat must be in place during any fire fighting operation. Failure to wear the entire coat and liner system during a fire may expose you to severe heat resulting in serious injury or death. 6–15
  • 16. NFPA® 1971 requires several design features for protective coats. 6–16 Reflective trim Wristlets Collars Drag Rescue Device (DRD) Closure system
  • 17. Additional PPC protects firefighters from a variety of hazards. 6–17 (Cont.)
  • 18. Additional PPC protects firefighters from a variety of hazards. 6–18
  • 19. Personal alert safety systems (PASS) aid in rescuing firefighters. 6–19 CourtesyofJamesNilo
  • 20. Wildland PPC follows specifications found in NFPA® 1977. 6–20
  • 21. Wildland PPC allows more movement but less protection than structural PPC. 6–21 (Cont.)
  • 22. Wildland PPC allows more movement but less protection than structural PPC. 6–22
  • 23. Do not wear underclothing made of synthetic materials. 6–23
  • 24. REVIEW QUESTION Why are there differences in the characteristics of structural fire fighting protective clothing and wildland personal protective clothing? 6–24
  • 25. WARNING! Wildland personal protective clothing is not designed, certified, or intended for interior structural fire fighting. 6–25
  • 26. Roadway operations clothing is designed to increase firefighter visibility. 6–26
  • 27. Emergency medical protective clothing helps prevent transmission of diseases. 6–27
  • 28. Special protective clothing can be used for other emergency incidents. 6–28 (Cont.)
  • 29. Special protective clothing can be used for other emergency incidents. 6–29 (Cont.) CourtesyofIowaFireServiceTrainingBureau
  • 30. Special protective clothing can be used for other emergency incidents. 6–30
  • 31. Station/Work uniforms serve two functions for firefighters. 6–31
  • 32. Station/Work uniforms must meet requirements of NFPA® 1975. 6–32
  • 33. Summarize guidelines for the care of personal protective clothing. Learning Objective 3 6–33
  • 34. Care of personal protective equipment is a matter of safety. 6–34
  • 35. Inspect PPC frequently and for several types of damage and/or contamination. 6–35 Inspection findings determine cleaning method used
  • 36. NFPA® 1851 defines four types of PPE cleaning. 6–36
  • 37. WARNING! • Do not wash contaminated protective clothing in washing machines used for other garments or items. • Do not take contaminated protective clothing into the living or sleeping quarters of the fire station or your residence. • PPE should not be stored where it can come in contact with vehicle exhausts. • PPE that is carried in personal vehicles should be placed in closable garment bags intended for that purpose. 6–37
  • 38. PPC must be repaired immediately by qualified personnel. 6–38
  • 39. REVIEW QUESTION What are some basic guidelines for the care of personal protective clothing? 6–39
  • 40. Explain the safety considerations for personal protective equipment. Learning Objective 4 6–40
  • 41. PPE both protects and isolates firefighters from hazards. 6–41
  • 42. Remember several specific safety considerations regarding PPE. 6–42 (Cont.)
  • 43. Remember several specific safety considerations regarding PPE. 6–43
  • 44. REVIEW QUESTION What safety considerations do firefighters need to keep in mind when using personal protective equipment? 6–44
  • 45. Identify respiratory hazards. Learning Objective 5 6–45
  • 46. Appropriate protection is the most effective respiratory protection. 6–46
  • 47. Respiratory hazards often occur in situations immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH). 6–47
  • 48. Oxygen deficiency occurs most often (but not only) in areas of combustion.
  • 49. Elevated temperatures can lead to superheated air. 6–49
  • 50. Particulate contaminants come from many sources and pose serious health risks. 6–50
  • 51. Gases and vapor enter the body in several ways and are very dangerous. 6–51 Gase s Vapors
  • 52. A variety of harmful gases and vapors can be formed by combustion. 6–52 Hydrogen Cyanide Hydrogen Chloride Sulfur Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen Sulfide Nitrous gases Ammonia Phosgene Formaldehyde
  • 53. Nonfire incidents can also produce dangerous gases and vapors. 6–53 Keep distance Wear SCBA
  • 54. Airborne pathogens are disease- causing microorganisms suspended in air. 6–54
  • 55. REVIEW QUESTION What common respiratory hazards do firefighters face? 6–55
  • 56. Identify types of respiratory protection equipment. Learning Objective 6 6–56
  • 57. Respiratory protection equipment is divided into two main categories. 6–57 Provides breathable air Filters particulates only
  • 58. ASRs are divided into further categories. 6–58
  • 59. Supplied air respirators (SARs) are used only in specific conditions. 6–59
  • 60. Open-circuit SCBAs are far more common than closed-circuit SCBA. 6–60
  • 61. Open-circuit SCBA consists of four basic components. 6–61 (Cont.)
  • 62. Open-circuit SCBA consists of four basic components. 6–62 (Cont.)
  • 63. Open-circuit SCBA consists of four basic components. 6–63 (Cont.)
  • 64. Open-circuit SCBA consists of four basic components. 6–64
  • 65. Fit testing and other regulations apply to facepiece assemblies. 6–65
  • 66. Additional components of SCBA provide safety features. 6–66 CourtesyofKennethBaum
  • 67. Air-purifying respirators (APRs) contain single use filters for airborne particulates. 6–67
  • 68. APRs are used only in specific instances involving particulates. 6–68
  • 69. APRs have limitations and must be closely monitored. 6–69
  • 70. REVIEW QUESTION How do atmosphere-supplying respirators differ from air-purifying respirators? 6–70
  • 71. Describe the limitations of respiratory protection equipment. Learning Objective 7 6–71
  • 72. Explain methods for storing respiratory protection equipment. Learning Objective 8 6–72
  • 73. Respiratory protection has both wearer and equipment limitations. 6–73 Offset by training, medical exams and proper fit testing.Offset by training, medical exams and proper fit testing. (Cont.)
  • 74. Respiratory protection has both wearer and equipment limitations. 6–74 Controlled by inspection, care, maintenance, training.Controlled by inspection, care, maintenance, training.
  • 75. NFPA® Safety Alert High temperature environments can result in thermal degradation or melting of SCBA facepiece lenses. RESULTS: •Elimination of protection meant for the user’s respiratory system •Exposure to products of combustion and superheated air 6–75
  • 76. REVIEW QUESTION What are some of the limitations of respiratory protection equipment? 6–76
  • 77. SCBA is stored according to local SOPs, but should be able to be quickly and easily donned. 6–77
  • 78. REVIEW QUESTION What should respiratory equipment be protected from during storage? 6–78
  • 79. Describe general donning and doffing considerations for protective breathing apparatus. Learning Objective 9 6–79
  • 80. Follow these general considerations when donning SCBA. 6–80
  • 81. SCBA can be donned in several ways. 6–81 CourtesyofKennethBaum (Cont.)
  • 82. Caution! Never connect the regulator and breathe cylinder air when seated in the apparatus. This activity will deplete your air supply before you arrive at the incident. 6–82
  • 83. SCBA can be donned in several ways. 6–83 CourtesyofRonBogardus
  • 84. Be aware of two important differences among SCBA facepieces. 6–84
  • 85. Follow these general consideration when donning SCBA facepieces. 6–85
  • 86. Follow these general considerations when doffing SCBA facepieces. 6–86 (Cont.)
  • 87. Follow these general considerations when doffing SCBA facepieces. 6–87
  • 88. REVIEW QUESTION What general considerations need to be taken when donning and doffing protective breathing apparatus? 6–88
  • 89. Summarize general considerations for protective breathing apparatus inspections and care. Learning Objective 10 6–89
  • 90. Several factors determine how frequently SCBA is inspected. 6–90
  • 91. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–91 (Cont.) CourtesyofKennethBaum
  • 92. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–92 (Cont.) CourtesyofKennethBaum
  • 93. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–93 (Cont.) CourtesyofKennethBaum
  • 94. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–94 (Cont.)
  • 95. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–95
  • 96. Proper care for SCBA means cleaning and sanitizing after each use. 6–96 (Cont.)
  • 97. Proper care for SCBA means cleaning and sanitizing after each use. 6–97
  • 98. REVIEW QUESTION What are the general inspection and care considerations for protective breathing apparatus? 6–98
  • 99. Trained and qualified personnel perform annual inspection and maintenance. 6–99 CourtesyofKennethBaum
  • 100. Frequency of SCBA air cylinder hydrostatic testing varies by material. 6–100 CourtesyofKennethBaum Stamp or label provides testing dates Material Steel/aluminum Hoop-wrapped aluminum Fully wrapped fiberglass Fully wrapped KevlarTM Fully wrapped carbon fiber
  • 101. Summarize safety precautions for refilling SCBA cylinders. Learning Objective 11 6–101
  • 102. Explain procedures for replacing SCBA cylinders. Learning Objective 12 6–102
  • 103. Three sources can be used to refill SCBA air cylinders. 6–103 CourtesyofJamesNilo CourtesyofBrandonWagoner
  • 104. Follow these general guidelines and precautions for all fill systems. 6–104
  • 105. Refilling unshielded cylinders while donned is prohibited, but RIC/RITs are granted exceptions. 6–105 CourtesyofKennethBaum
  • 106. Stationary fill systems use cascade system or fill direct from compressor. 6–106
  • 107. Follow these safety precautions when using stationary fill stations. 6–107
  • 108. Mobile fill stations are used at emergency incidents. 6–108 CourtesyofJamesNilo
  • 109. Firefighting breathing air replenishment system (FBARS) are used in highrise buildings. 6–109 CourtesyofBrandonWagoner
  • 110. REVIEW QUESTION What kinds of safety precautions should be taken when refilling SCBA cylinders? 6–110
  • 111. Replace SCBA cylinders only in specific circumstances. 6–111
  • 112. REVIEW QUESTION What methods can you use to replace an SCBA cylinder? 6–112
  • 113. Explain safety precautions for SCBA use. Learning Objective 13 6–113
  • 114. Describe nonemergency and emergency exit indicators. Learning Objective 14 6–114
  • 115. Describe nonemergency exit techniques. Learning Objective 15 6–115
  • 116. Several safety precautions must be considered when using SCBA. 6–116 (Cont.)
  • 117. Several safety precautions must be considered when using SCBA. 6–117
  • 118. REVIEW QUESTION What are the safety precautions taken when using an SCBA? 6–118
  • 119. Exit procedures help you make rapid exits from many type incidents. 6–119
  • 120. Nonemergency exit indicators are the most common. 6–120
  • 121. Emergency exit indicators signal life threatening situations. 6–121
  • 122. REVIEW QUESTION What are common emergency and nonemergency exit indicators a firefighter may encounter during an incident? 6–122
  • 123. IC monitors potential hazards but you should monitor your oxygen levels. 6–123
  • 124. Nonemergency exit techniques are based on Incident Command Systems (ICS) and NFPA® 1500. 6–124 (Cont.)
  • 125. Nonemergency exit techniques are based on Incident Command Systems (ICS) and NFPA® 1500. 6–125
  • 126. REVIEW QUESTION What are some nonemergency exit techniques firefighters can use? 6–126
  • 127. • Your PPE will protect you from hazards and minimize the risk of injury or fatality if properly worn, cleaned, and maintained. • Respiratory equipment can protect you from toxic gases and vapors, particulates, and disease, but only if properly used, inspected, cleaned, and maintained. Summary 6–127
  • 128. • Knowing how to select the type of respiratory equipment that is appropriate, as well as manage your air supply, are also important. Summary 6–128
  • 129. Demonstrate the method for donning structural personal protective clothing for use at an emergency. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-1. Learning Objective 16 6–129
  • 130. With structural personal protective clothing in place, demonstrate the over-the-head method of donning an SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-2. Learning Objective 17 6–130
  • 131. With structural personal protective clothing in place, demonstrate the coat method of donning an SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-3. Learning Objective 18 6–131
  • 132. With structural personal protective clothing in place, demonstrate the method for donning an SCBA while seated. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-4. Learning Objective 19 6–132
  • 133. Doff personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, and prepare for reuse. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-5. Learning Objective 20 6–133
  • 134. Demonstrate the steps for inspecting an SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-6 Learning Objective 21 6–134
  • 135. Demonstrate the steps for cleaning an SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-7. Learning Objective 22 6–135
  • 136. Demonstrate the method for filling an SCBA cylinder from a cascade system, wearing appropriate PPE, including eye and ear protection. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-8. Learning Objective 23 6–136
  • 137. Demonstrate the method for filling an SCBA cylinder from a compressor/ purifier system, wearing appropriate PPE, including eye and ear protection. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-9. Learning Objective 24 6–137
  • 138. Demonstrate the one-person method for replacing an SCBA cylinder. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-10. Learning Objective 25 6–138
  • 139. Demonstrate the two-person method for replacing an SCBA cylinder. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-11. Learning Objective 26 6–139

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