3.3 comparison of energy resources


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3.3 comparison of energy resources

  1. 1. IB Syllabus: 3.3.1-3.3.3 Video – A Crude Awakening Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 1
  2. 2.  http://1bog.org/blog/what-if-solar-powerhad-fossil-fuel-like-subsidies-infographic/ Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 2
  3. 3.    3.3.1: Outline the range of energy resources available to a society 3.3.2: Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of two contrasting energy sources 3.3.3: Discuss the factors that effect the choice of energy sources adopted by different societies Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 3
  4. 4.     Greenhouse gases Renewable natural capital Non renewable natural capital Pollution Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 4
  5. 5.        Fossil fuels  coal, oil, natural gas Nuclear  fission, fusion Solar  passive, active Hydroelectric Geothermal Wind The relative use of different forms depends on the particular area, its needs and its own available resources Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 5
  6. 6. Nuclear power 6% Hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind 7% Natural Gas 12% Biomass 11% Coal 21% Oil 32% World Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 6
  7. 7. Nuclear power 8% Hydropower geothermal solar, wind 4% Natural Gas 23% Coal 22% Biomass 4% Oil 39% United States Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 7
  8. 8. 60 History Projections Oil 50 Natural gas 40 Coal Nuclear 30 Nonhydro renewable 20 Renewable hydro 10 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Year Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 8
  9. 9. 100 Contribution to total energy consumption (percent) Wood 80 Coal Natural gas 60 Oil 40 Hydrogen Solar 20 Nuclear 0 1800 1875 1950 Year 2025 Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 2100 9
  10. 10.  Future of nonrenewable resources depends on 1. Actual or Potential supply 2. Rate of consumption    Economic depletion – costs too much to use Depletion time – time to use 80% of resource Traditional measure of availability is reserve to production ratio – change is based on new sources and new processes Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 10
  11. 11. A Mine, use, throw away; no new discoveries; rising prices Recycle; increase reserves by improved mining technology, higher prices, and new discoveries Production B Recycle, reuse, reduce consumption; increase reserves by improved mining technology, higher prices, and new discoveries C Present Depletion time A Depletion Curves Depletion time B Time Depletion time C Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 11
  12. 12.     Resources are unequally distributed on the earth by geologic processes In free market economy high supply should = lower price, while scarcity = increased price Theory may no longer apply because of governmental control of resources & prices Government Subsidies, Lower taxes, & increased purchasing power all benefit mining companies Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 12
  13. 13. Most power generation regardless of the type is based on heating water to create Guru ESS 9/28/2013 13 Steam to turn a turbine and run a dynamo to create theIBelectricity
  14. 14. Advantages Ample supply for 42–93 years Low cost (with huge subsidies) High net energy yield Easily transported within and between countries Low land use Efficient distribution system Disadvantages Need to find substitute within 50 years Artificially low price encourages waste and discourages search for alternatives Oil Air pollution when burned Releases CO2 when burned Moderate water pollution Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 14
  15. 15. Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 15
  16. 16. Advantages Moderate existing supplies Large potential supplies Easily transported within and between countries Efficient distribution system in place Disadvantages High costs Low net energy yield Large amount of water needed to process Coal Severe land disruption from surface mining Water pollution from mining residues Air pollution when burned CO2 emissions Guru when burned IB ESS 9/28/2013 16
  17. 17. Advantages Large fuel supply Disadvantages High cost (even with large subsidies) Low environmental impact (without accidents) Low net energy yield Emits 1/6 as much CO2 as coal High environmental impact (with major accidents) Moderate land disruption and water pollution (without accidents) Catastrophic accidents can happen (Chernobyl) Moderate land use Low risk of accidents because of multiple safety systems (except in 35 poorly designed and run reactors in former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe) Nuclear Power No acceptable solution for long-term storage of radioactive wastes and decommissioning worn-out plants Spreads knowledge and technology for building nuclear weapons Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 17
  18. 18. Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 18
  19. 19. Advantages Disadvantages Fairly high net energy Need access to sun Work on cloudy days Low efficiency Quick installation Need electricity storage system or backup Easily expanded or moved No CO2 emissions Low environmental impact Last 20-40 years Low land use (if on roof or built into walls or windows) Reduce dependence on fossil fuels High land use (solar cell power plants) could disrupt desert areas Solar Power High costs (but should be competitive in 5-15 years) DC current must be converted to AC Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 19
  20. 20. Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 20
  21. 21. More Renewable Energy Improve Energy Efficiency Increase renewable energy to 20% by 2020 and 50% by 2050 Increase fuel-efficiency standards for vehicles, buildings, and appliances Mandate government purchases of efficient vehicles and other devices Provide large subsidies and tax credits for renewable energy Use full-cost accounting and least-cost analysis for comparing all energy alternatives Encourage government purchase of renewable energy devices Provide large tax credits for buying efficient cars, houses, and appliances Greatly increase renewable energy research and development Offer large tax credits for investments in efficiency Reduce Pollution and Health Risk Reward utilities for reducing demand Cut coal use 50% by 2020 Phase out coal subsidies Encourage independent power producers Levy taxes on coal and oil use Phase out nuclear power or put it on hold until 2020 Greatly increase efficiency research and development Phase out nuclear power subsidies Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 21
  22. 22.      Iceland uses geothermal energy because of their location and its low environmental impacts China, US, Russia use coal because they have a lot of it available and it’s cheap economically US dependence on oil is cultural because of our insistence on cars, suburbs, bigger, more, better EU more nuclear power use because of environmental benefits and they have the technology to do it LDCs use wood, dung other biofuels that are easily collected Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 22
  23. 23.   With impending effects of climate change the use of carbon dioxide producing energy sources is being questioned around the world Our dependence is deep  how will we change something that is so deeply ingrained in our way of life? Guru IB ESS 9/28/2013 23