Fossil vs Non-Fossil Energy Sources


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Unit 3 VCE Environmental Science: Area of Study 1 - Energy and Greenhouse gases. This presentation has some typical exam a review of some typical exam questions for this unit of work as well as a comparison of the Mortlake Gas fired power plant and the Macarthur wind farm.

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Fossil vs Non-Fossil Energy Sources

  1. 1. VCE Environmental Science Unit 3: AoS 1: Energy SAC 1B: Fossil vs Non-Fossil 550 MW Gas at Mortlake Power Station Versus420MW Wind Energy at Macarthur Wind Farm
  2. 2. First a revision of the greenhouse effect:• You need to know the terms absorption, dissipation, electromagnetic, radiation, transmission, reflection, ultra-violet, infrared and visible light.• You need to be able to draw a labelled diagram of the natural and enhanced greenhouse effects.
  3. 3. Question 1Which of the following groups contains onlyexamples of renewable energy sources?A. hydroelectric, coal, windB. nuclear, natural gas, solarC. solar, wind, hydroelectricD. hydroelectric, natural gas, wind
  4. 4. Question 2:Considering the overall global effect, whichof the following gases is the most significantcontributor to the natural greenhouseeffect?A. methaneB. water vapourC. carbon dioxideD. chlorofluorocarbons
  5. 5. Question 3Which of the following gases has thegreatest impact globally on the enhancedgreenhouse effect?A. methaneB. water vapourC. carbon dioxideD. chlorofluorocarbons
  6. 6. Question 4Which of the following lists of energy sources arein order of increasing emission of carbondioxide per unit of energy produced?A. biomass, natural gas, coal, nuclearB. biomass, natural gas, nuclear, coalC. nuclear, biomass, coal, natural gasD. nuclear, natural gas, biomass, coal
  7. 7. Question 5Figure 1 shows the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 asmeasured at a particular location over the period 1960–2008.The percentage increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2from 1960 to 2000 is closest toA. 12%B. 17%C. 19%D. 22%
  8. 8. Question 6Which of the following options best identifies the type ofincoming radiation? ultraviolet visible infraredA. S R QB. R Q SC. R P SD. S R P
  9. 9. Question 7Which of the following options best identifies thetype of outgoing radiation? ultraviolet visible infraredA. X X YB. None Y XC. Y X YD. none Y none
  10. 10. 1 tonne = 1000 kgkilo (k) = 103mega (M) = 106A thermal electricity generating plant is powered by coal. Eachkilogram of the particular quality of coal used produces 5 MJ ofenergy.Question 9Burning of coal in the boiler is the first step in the process ofgenerating electricity. This burning of coal in the boiler is bestdescribed asA. an exothermic reaction.B. an endothermic reaction.C. conversion of kinetic energy to heat energy.D. conversion of chemical energy to mechanical energy.
  11. 11. 1 tonne = 1000 kgkilo (k) = 103mega (M) = 106A thermal electricity generating plant is powered by coal. Eachkilogram of the particular quality of coal used produces 5 MJ ofenergy.Question 10The boiler burns approximately 50 tonnes of coal per hour.Which of the following is the best estimate of the coal energy usedper hour?A. 2.5 × 109 MJB. 1.8 × 107 MJC. 2.5 × 105 MJD. 1.8 × 103 MJ
  12. 12. 1 tonne = 1000 kgkilo (k) = 103mega (M) = 106A thermal electricity generating plant is powered by coal. Eachkilogram of the particular quality of coal used produces 5 MJ ofenergy.Question 11When burning 50 tonnes of coal per hour, the output of theelectricity generator is 25 MJ per second. The percentage efficiencyof the whole power station is closest to:A. 0.01%B. 0.36%C. 3.6%D. 36%
  13. 13. Question 12Name a fossil fuel energy source you have studied.Name a non-fossil fuel energy source you have studied.You should use these two sources in answering Questions 1a. to d.You have been asked to design the electricity supply for a city of100 000 people.12a. Describe the steps involved in using your nominated fossilfuel source to provide electricity to the homes and industries inthe city. (4 marks)12b. Describe the steps involved in using your nominated non-fossil fuel energy source to provide electricity to the homes andindustries in the city. (4 marks)
  14. 14. 12c. Outline some advantages and disadvantages of using yournominated fossil fuel energy source to supply energy to this city. (4 marks)12d. Outline a strategy that could be used to reduce the impact ofyour nominated fossil fuel energy source on the enhancedgreenhouse effect. Your answer should make reference to thespecific emissions of your nominated fossil fuel source. Your answercould address either the process of using the fossil fuel energysource or reducing the impact of its emissions. (5 marks)
  15. 15. SAC 1B: A report in annotated poster or multimedia format (recommended – either a slideshow or website of about 15 pages).Outcome 1: Describe the principles of energy and relate them to the contribution of one fossil fuel and one non-fossil energy source to the enhanced greenhouse effect.
  16. 16. Your report should demonstrate:• Your understanding of the following key knowledge – energy efficiency of conversions, ways of increasing energy efficiency,, heat, combustion, greenhouse effect, the interaction of energy with greenhouse gases: energy absorption, re-emission, radiation and dissipation by greenhouse gases• The use of data in describing the scientific concepts associated with energy including: energy conversions and energy efficiency; transmission, absorption, radiation and dissipation; greenhouse gases• Methods of recording and processing information ie Acknowledgement of sources of information (bibliography of written and electronic sources). Make sure you include a References page.
  17. 17. Performance Descriptor:‘Comprehensive use of accurate data relating to energyconversions and efficiency in the use of one fossil andnon-fossil energy source. Reasoned and articulate linksare made between the use of one fossil and one non-fossil energy source and their level of contribution tothe enhanced greenhouse effect. A well developedexplanation of relevant international, national, stateand/or local strategies and protocols for reducing theimpact of fossil fuel energy sources is included.Detailed analysis is evident in explaining and assessingthe effects of one fossil and one non-fossil energyresource use on the environment and society.’
  18. 18. Mortlake gas-fired power plant
  19. 19. 550 MW Gas –fired Power Station• 550 MW can power about 550,000 homes (assuming 1MW = approx 1,000 homes), which is roughly equivalent to a city the size of Perth or 50 times the size of Warrnambool.
  20. 20. LocationThe Mortlake PowerStation Project is a550 MW gas-firedpower station 12kmwest of Mortlake inSouth-WesternVictoria. The OriginBoard approvedconstruction ofProject on 4 July2008.
  21. 21. LocationThe site was chosen dueto a range of factors,including its access to the500kV high voltageelectricity transmissionline, well serviced statehighways and roads, thesuitability of the land forconstruction and itsproximity to Origin’s gasreserves in the offshoreOtway Basin. (goodaccessibility)
  22. 22. Base vs Peak Load• Due to be completed this year, the open cycle power station will supply peaking power to Victorian homes in times of high electricity demand. The project also involves construction of a dedicated 83km gas pipeline which is completed and will be ready for commissioning to meet the power station’s needs.• The underground natural gas transmission pipeline runs through more than 80 properties and stretches through the Timboon, Brucknell, Garvoc and Terang districts. Along this route, some sites required horizontal direct drilling which bores underground to ensure the minimum environmental impact.
  23. 23. Improved Efficiency Currently Mortlake Power Plant is an “Open cycle” generator, but has the capacity to be converted to a “Combined Cycle” or Co- Generation (Heat and Power) plant in future.Co-generation plants are more efficient because the heat is notwasted but used for other purposes – for example: space heating insome countries, drying fruit and vegetables or hot water forcleaning.
  24. 24. Social and Economic Impacts• The Mortlake Power Plant has provided employment for 300 workers, including as contractors, during construction. When it is fully operational it will provide up to 30 full time positions.• Multi-million dollar construction, with opportunities for local businesses in the supply of goods and services (eg accommodation, fuel, food, construction materials, cleaning, equipment hire and security). Property prices and rental costs in Mortlake have increased since construction started.
  25. 25. Environmental ImpactsHigh efficiency natural gas-fired power stationscan produce up to 70% lower greenhouse gasemissions than existing brown coal-firedgenerators, and less than half that of the latesttechnology black coal-fired power stations.Increasing the use of natural gas as a fuel forelectricity generation will assist Australia toreduce its greenhouse gas emissions. However,natural gas is a fossil fuel and although we haveover 100 years supply at 2002 rates of use, it is afinite resource.
  26. 26. Advantages of Gas• Gas burns cleaner than the other fossil fuels such as coal and oil due to the highly efficient combustion process, which produces very few by- products that are released into the atmosphere as pollutants.• Gas produces 70% less carbon dioxide emissions compared to other fossil fuels.• Due to the clean burning process, natural gas does not leave residues like soot or ash when compared to coal.• Gas offers a high heating value, approximately 24,000 Btu per pound.• Utilising gas removes the need for large underground storage facilities and reduces the possibility of soil contamination when compared with oil and there is less chance of the need for large scale environmental clean ups using natural gas.• Gas is relatively inexpensive when compared to coal (saves money).• Gas is considered to be a reliable form of energy production because the pipeline system is not susceptible to bad weather conditions unlike the transport of coal or oil, which is often moved by road or rail.• Increased reliability over wind and solar power.
  27. 27. Disadvantages of Gas• Gas is a highly flammable substance and it needs to be produced in highly managed circumstances.• Creating and managing the pipelines used to transport natural gas can be costly.• Gas is considered to be a non-renewable energy source and will run out eventually if our current usage levels continue.• Gas is colourless, odourless and tasteless which can make finding potentially hazardous leaks difficult.
  28. 28. Macarthur Wind FarmPower from a non-fossil energy source
  29. 29. LocationThe wind farm area covers approximately 5,500hectares of freehold agricultural land approx 16kmeast of Macarthur, between Hamilton andWarrnambool in South Western Victoria.
  30. 30. Location• The 420MW Macarthur Wind Farm Project is made up of 140 wind turbines located on three properties that are predominately used for sheep and cattle grazing. About 90km of tracks service the wind farm site. Construction commenced in December, 2011.
  31. 31. Environmental benefits The Macarthur Wind Farm will save approximately 1.7 million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year from being emitted into the atmosphere. It will contribute to the Federal Governments expanded Renewable Energy Target which aims to have 20% of the countrys electricity generated from renewable sources by 2020.
  32. 32. Economic and Employment BenefitsThe project will create up to 900construction and manufacturingjobs in the region, with up to300 on-site jobs during the peakconstruction period, and up to30 full-time ongoing operationsand maintenance positions toservice the wind farm during its25 year design life, providinglong term employmentopportunities and associatedbenefits for local businesses andservices.
  33. 33. Social and Community benefits• The on site workforce now numbers in excess of 350 and a large majority of these employees have been drawn from a 100km radius of the site. Leighton Contractors and Vestas are providing training opportunities for workers and developing new skills that will be of significant benefit to these workers in the future.• AGL, Meridian Energy, Vestas and Leighton Contractors are all contributing to various community projects, including upgrading sporting facilities, augmenting health care equipment, improved child care facilities and development of public spaces. The communities of Macarthur and Hawkesdale will see the benefits of these projects in the coming months.
  34. 34. Advantages of Wind Power• Clean – no greenhouse gas emissions produced in operation• Renewable – wind is a resource that will not run out• Can operate at night (unlike solar)• Other industries can operate in the vicinity (eg. Agriculture)
  35. 35. Disadvantages of Wind Power• Cost – this is a $1 billion project, over ten years in the planning.• Much of the infrastructure (blades and turbines) have been manufactured overseas and transported here, at great cost.• Wind is not a constant energy source and therefore cannot be used for base-load power.• Aesthetics – some people complain about the changed appearance of the landscape.• Noise – some people complain about the noise from wind turbines.
  36. 36. Disadvantages of Wind Power• Impact on native vegetation and habitat• Bird kills and disruption of threatened species.• Areas of cultural and historical significance• Potential health impacts• TV and radio interference• What happens at the end of the 25 year life span? (Decommisioning)
  37. 37. References• ake-Power-Station-Project• /the-project/