Environmental Impact Assessment


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Environmental Impact Assessment

  1. 1. EnvironmentalEnvironmental Impact AssessmentImpact Assessment Prof. Sandeep HegdeProf. Sandeep Hegde
  2. 2. Environmental Impact AssessmentEnvironmental Impact Assessment • Environment Impact Assessment or EIA can be defined as the study to predict the effect of a proposed activity/project on the environment. • A decision making tool, EIA compares various alternatives for a project and seeks to identify the one which represents the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits.
  3. 3. Environmental Impact AssessmentEnvironmental Impact Assessment is intended as an instrument ofis intended as an instrument of preventivepreventive environmentalenvironmental management. It provides amanagement. It provides a framework and an informationframework and an information basis forbasis for decision makingdecision making onon activities affecting theactivities affecting the environment.environment.
  4. 4. EIA – Three core values 1. Integrity: The EIA process should be fair, objective, unbiased and balanced 2. Utility: The EIA process should provide balanced, credible information for decision making 3. Sustainability: The EIA process should result in environmental safeguards
  5. 5. ““To say that infrastructure development hasTo say that infrastructure development has impact is to state the obvious. No industrialimpact is to state the obvious. No industrial country has advanced to such status withoutcountry has advanced to such status without developing solid infrastructure facilities. Anddeveloping solid infrastructure facilities. And no low-income country has managed tono low-income country has managed to escape poverty in the absence ofescape poverty in the absence of infrastructure.infrastructure. In addition to economic growth,In addition to economic growth, infrastructure development has a veryinfrastructure development has a very tangible impact on people's daily lives, andtangible impact on people's daily lives, and especially on the lives of poor peopleespecially on the lives of poor people ”” -- Liqun JinLiqun Jin Vice President, ADBVice President, ADB
  6. 6. EIAEIA applies to the assessment of theapplies to the assessment of the environmental effects of those publicenvironmental effects of those public and privateand private projectsprojects which are likely towhich are likely to have significant effects on thehave significant effects on the environment.environment.
  7. 7. EIAEIA ProjectProject means:means: • the execution of construction works orthe execution of construction works or of other installations or schemesof other installations or schemes • other interventions in the naturalother interventions in the natural surroundings and landscape includingsurroundings and landscape including those involving the extraction ofthose involving the extraction of minerals.minerals.
  8. 8. EIAEIA Development consentDevelopment consent means:means: • thethe decisiondecision of the competentof the competent authorities which entitles the developerauthorities which entitles the developer to proceed with the project.to proceed with the project.
  9. 9. EIAEIA …….. have significant effects on the.. have significant effects on the environment by virtueenvironment by virtue inter alia,inter alia, of their:of their: nature, size,nature, size, locationlocation..
  10. 10. EIAEIA …… direct and indirect effects of a projectdirect and indirect effects of a project on the following factors:on the following factors: • human beings, fauna and florahuman beings, fauna and flora • soil, water, air, climate and the landscapesoil, water, air, climate and the landscape • the inter-action between the factorsthe inter-action between the factors mentioned in the first and second indentsmentioned in the first and second indents • material assets and the culturalmaterial assets and the cultural heritage.heritage.
  11. 11. Environmental ImpactEnvironmental Impact Assessment (EIA)Assessment (EIA) There are two types of EIA models- the statutory model which makes the assessment of impact compulsory under an enacted law, or a delegated legislation, and the administrative model under which an administration exercises its discretion to find out whether an impact study is necessary. Till 1992, India was following the administrative model of EIA.
  12. 12. • On 27th January, 1994 a notification was issued dealing with mandatory EIA. The notification requires project proponent to submit an EIA report, and environment management plan, details of the public hearing and a project report to the impact assessment agency for clearance, further review by a committee of experts in certain cases. • By the amendment in the year 1997, public hearing was made compulsory before impact assessment was finalized. EIA – Statutory ModelEIA – Statutory Model
  13. 13. Environmental Clearance Process
  14. 14. Information requirementsInformation requirements Description of the project:Description of the project: • physical characteristics, land-usephysical characteristics, land-use requirements during construction andrequirements during construction and operationoperation • production processes, materials usedproduction processes, materials used • estimate of expected residues andestimate of expected residues and emissions (emissions (water, air, soil pollution, noise,water, air, soil pollution, noise, vibrations, light, heat, radiation, etc.)vibrations, light, heat, radiation, etc.)
  15. 15. Information requirementsInformation requirements Alternatives:Alternatives: • outline of the main alternativesoutline of the main alternatives • main reasons formain reasons for choicechoice, including, including environmental effectsenvironmental effects
  16. 16. Information requirementsInformation requirements Impacts on:Impacts on: • population, fauna, flora, soils, water, air,population, fauna, flora, soils, water, air, climatic factors, material assets incl.climatic factors, material assets incl. architectural and archeological heritage,architectural and archeological heritage, landscapelandscape • interrelationship between these factorsinterrelationship between these factors
  17. 17. Information requirementsInformation requirements Likely significant effects from:Likely significant effects from: • existence of the projectexistence of the project • use of natural resourcesuse of natural resources • emission of pollutants, creation ofemission of pollutants, creation of nuisances, elimination of wastenuisances, elimination of waste and the description of the methodsand the description of the methods used to assess the effects.used to assess the effects.
  18. 18. Information requirementsInformation requirements Description of measures:Description of measures: • to prevent, reduce, and whereto prevent, reduce, and where possible to offset any significantpossible to offset any significant adverse effects on theadverse effects on the environment.environment.
  19. 19. Environmental Impact AssessmentEnvironmental Impact Assessment procedural steps:procedural steps: • description of the projectdescription of the project • description of the environmentdescription of the environment • identification of environmental impactsidentification of environmental impacts • evaluation of environmental impactsevaluation of environmental impacts • management and control of impactsmanagement and control of impacts • presentation of the studypresentation of the study • public participationpublic participation • judgment by authoritiesjudgment by authorities
  20. 20. EIA Process
  21. 21. Environmental Impact AssessmentEnvironmental Impact Assessment procedure:procedure: • deciding whether an EIA is required (Screening)deciding whether an EIA is required (Screening) • determining the scope of EIA (Scoping)determining the scope of EIA (Scoping) • preparing of the impact statement (EIS)preparing of the impact statement (EIS) • consultations, public participationconsultations, public participation • evaluating EIA results and consultationsevaluating EIA results and consultations • reaching a decisionreaching a decision • monitoring impacts after project implementationmonitoring impacts after project implementation
  22. 22. Project Life Cycle Phase A Phase B Phase C Phase D Phase E
  23. 23. A. ProjectA. Project Concept/IdentificationConcept/Identification • Initial stage of the project planningInitial stage of the project planning – Basic nature of the project is knownBasic nature of the project is known including the site(s) where the projectincluding the site(s) where the project is being proposed to be implementedis being proposed to be implemented – ““Screen” project to determine ifScreen” project to determine if project requires a full EIAproject requires a full EIA
  24. 24. ScreeningScreening ProjectProject EnvironmentalEnvironmental impactimpact EconomicEconomic impactimpact SocialSocial impactimpact Screening • Identify environmental issues of concern • Determine whether EIA is needed • Establish need for project Not require EIA Require EIA Impacts unclear Threshold criteria Impact criteria • Size • Location • Output • Cost/Finances • Environmental effects • etc. • Significant but easily identifiable impacts • Significant impacts • Sensitive area
  25. 25. Methods for Scoping B. Pre-feasibility StageB. Pre-feasibility Stage Making a plan for public involvement Identifying major issues of public concern Establishing priorities for environmental assessment Developing a strategy for addressing priorities Evaluating the significance of issues Distribution of information to interested parties ““Scope” the project to identify issues/impacts for investigationScope” the project to identify issues/impacts for investigation
  26. 26. Initial Assessment ofInitial Assessment of ImpactsImpacts Existing or baseline data:Existing or baseline data: • provide a description of the status andprovide a description of the status and trends of environmental factors (e.g., airtrends of environmental factors (e.g., air pollutant concentrations) against whichpollutant concentrations) against which predicted changes can be compared andpredicted changes can be compared and evaluated in terms of importanceevaluated in terms of importance • provide a means of detecting actual changeprovide a means of detecting actual change by monitoring once a project has beenby monitoring once a project has been initiatedinitiated
  27. 27. C. Feasibility StageC. Feasibility Stage Conduct the EIA and determine if theConduct the EIA and determine if the project is viableproject is viable • Magnitude of impactMagnitude of impact -- indicate whether the impactindicate whether the impact is irreversible or, reversible and estimated potentialis irreversible or, reversible and estimated potential rate of recoveryrate of recovery • Extent of impactExtent of impact -- spatial extent of impacts shouldspatial extent of impacts should be determinedbe determined • Duration of ImpactDuration of Impact -- arising at different phases ofarising at different phases of the project cycle and the length of the impact [e.g.the project cycle and the length of the impact [e.g. short term (during construction-9 yrs), medium termshort term (during construction-9 yrs), medium term (10-20 yrs), long term (20+ yrs)](10-20 yrs), long term (20+ yrs)]
  28. 28. D. Implement & Audit theD. Implement & Audit the ProjectProject The EIA is a "reference" guide during implementation • Outlines mitigation strategies and monitoring schemes Preventative measures - reduce potential adverse impacts before occurrence Compensatory measures - compensate for unavoidable adverse impacts Corrective measures - reduces the adverse impact to an acceptable level • Audit project after completion to identify lessons learned
  29. 29. E. Environmental MonitoringE. Environmental Monitoring • Environmental monitoring provides feedback about the actual environmental impacts of a project • Helps judge the success of mitigation measures in protecting the environment • Ensure compliance with environmental standards • Facilitate any needed project design or operational changes
  30. 30. Strategic environment assessment • Strategic environment assessment (SEA) refers to systematic analysis of the environmental effects of development policies, plans, programmes and other proposed strategic actions. This process extends the aims and principles of EIA upstream in the decision- making process, beyond the project level and when major alternatives are still open. SEA represents a proactive approach to integrating environmental considerations into the higher levels of decision- making. • Despite its wide use and acceptance, EIA has certain shortcomings as a tool for minimizing environmental effects of development proposals. It takes place relatively late at the downstream end of the decision making process, after major alternatives and directions have been chosen
  31. 31. Activists are calling the project illegal. “The land of adivasis here is ceiling land. During the land reforms movement, excess land that was acquired by the government was given to adivasis for tilling in 1972. Land deed, locally called 7/12, was also issued in their names. Such ceiling land can neither be transferred nor sold. But the Maharashtra government has issued special resolutions to ensure that the ceiling land can be acquired for developing Lavasa,” says Rifat Mumtaz of Pune-based ngo National Centre for Advocacy Studies (ncas). Mumtaz adds that Lavasa has flouted rules because the project has not taken any environmental impact assessment (eia) clearance from the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests.
  32. 32. “The corporation has already constructed one private dam and there is no water downstream of this dam. Farmers have neither drinking water nor water for irrigation. The farmers downsteam recently attacked mkvdc and it was forced to release water. Imagine what will happen after all the four dams are constructed,” says Shedge of Mugaon village. A petition in the Bombay High Court challenged allocation of mkvdc’s land in 2006. The petition also said that mkvdc was not meant for commercial use and Lavasa was a purely commercial venture. The case is pending. The company says it is building 12 mini dams in the area that will “add to the current capacity of the Warasgaon lake”. “These dams will be built at higher levels increasing the existing catchment capacity. We will create an additional water catchment of 0.9 thousand million cubic metres (tmc) of which 0.4 tmc will be used by Lavasa and 0.5 tmc will be released into the lake,” the spokesperson said.
  33. 33. But experts warn that water scarcity will not remain limited to downstream villages; it will also hit Pune city, as its water supply goes from this valley, called the Mose valley. “On the one hand, the government is destroying the present water source for Pune and on the other, it is seeking funds from the Centre for additional water supply,” says Pune corporator Bhapkar. Meanwhile, protests against the project have gathered steam. Villagers are demanding a Central Bureau of Investigation enquiry.
  34. 34. EIA’s therefore cannot….EIA’s therefore cannot…. • Decide which alternative to choseDecide which alternative to chose • Prevent environmental impacts fromPrevent environmental impacts from happeninghappening • Guarantee decisions you likeGuarantee decisions you like • Prohibit any actionsProhibit any actions • Cumulative effects of multiple projectsCumulative effects of multiple projects