Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Architectural Space as a Network - Physical and Virtual Communities
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Architectural Space as a Network - Physical and Virtual Communities

763
views

Published on

Presentation at Workshop 'Innovation at the Verge - Computational Models of Physical / Virtual Space Interaction'; Leiden/NL, 18 Dec 2012 …

Presentation at Workshop 'Innovation at the Verge - Computational Models of Physical / Virtual Space Interaction'; Leiden/NL, 18 Dec 2012
This talk explores the role of architectural space as a network that structures patterns of co-presence of occupants. It is suggested that one outcome of the configuration of space (in buildings or cities) is to structure a field of potential co-presence between people – a ‘virtual community’ - which gives rise to real encounter networks as people move through and inhabit it. Through the structure of physical space and the associated field of potential co-presence social groupings are either conserved, or new groupings are generated. Examples are given to illustrate this.
It is furthermore suggested that society coheres by means of both spatial and transpatial solidarities, which means individuals will participate in multiple distinct networks at the same time. Spatial networks are generated through face-to-face encounter in architectural space, and are dependent on spatial relational structures, while transpatial ties result from shared values, ethos and identities.
As technologies become more and more ubiquitous, they increasingly structure people’s patterns of interaction and seemingly move them away from physical space and into a new realm of online communities. This raises the question of whether physical space still plays the role it used to play and how we can conceptualise multiple overlapping network affiliations in both physical and virtual spaces. Therefore the affordances of technology in offering means of communication and encounter across time and space are discussed and put into perspective of the real life face-to-face networks of people realised in physical space.

Published in: Education

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
763
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
65
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. ARCHITECTURAL SPACE AS A NETWORK PHYSICAL AND VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES Dr Kerstin Sailer Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London Lorentz Workshop ‘Innovation at the Verge – Computational Models of Physical / Virtual Space Interaction’,ArchitecturalNL, 17-21aDec 2012 Leiden / Space as Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 2. Architectural Space as a Network Flow of space represented as a spatial network → patterns of co-presence of occupants construct affects SOCIAL BEHAVIOURSArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 3. Architectural Space as a Network Co-presence of occupants: ‘Virtual Community’Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 4. Architectural Space as a Network “Co-present individuals may not know each other, or even acknowledge each other, but it will be argued that this does not mean to say that co- presence is not a social fact and a social resource. Co-present people are not a community, but they are part of the raw material for community, which may in due course become activated, and can be activated if it becomes necessary. However, even without conversion into interaction, patterns of co-presence are a psychological resource, precisely because co-presence is the primitive form of our awareness of others. Patterns of co-presence and co-awareness are the distinctive product of spatial design, and constitute, it will be argued, the prime constituents of what will be called the ‘virtual community’.” Bill Hillier (1996): Space is the MachineArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 5. Architectural Space as a Network – The Method of Space Syntax Bill Hillier (1996): Space is the MachineArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 6. Architectural Space as a Network – The Method of Space Syntax Bill Hillier (1996): Space is the MachineArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 7. Architectural Space as a Network – The Method of Space Syntax Total depth: 16 1 1 2 0 2 1 1 3 2 3 10 4 2 5 3 1 2 4 6 3 0 10 Total depth: 30Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 8. Architectural Space as a Network – The Method of Space SyntaxArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 9. Architectural Space as a Network – The Method of Space SyntaxArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 10. Architectural Space as a Network – The Method of Space SyntaxFloor plan Visual graph analysisAxial topologyMetric topology Space usage, e.g. movement flow Integrated SegregatedArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 11. Space Syntax Research: Comparative Analysis of Cities 1000m 500m Part of Tokyo Part of London © Bill Hillier et alArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 12. LONDON and itsregion within theM25, with itsstrong centre andstrong radials,but weak lateralconnectionsbetween theradials © Bill Hillier et al 10000m Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 13. BEIJING with itsrelative weakcentre and weakradials, but stronglateral structurebetween radials © Bill Hillier et al 10000m Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 14. TOKYO with its fairlystrong centre, strongradials and stronglaterals, generating thestrong sub-city structurecharacteristic of Tokyo © Bill Hillier et al Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012 10000m
  • 15. Space Syntax Research: City Centres and Retail Activity © Laura Vaughan, Sam Griffiths, Muki Haklay, Kate JonesArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 16. Space Syntax Research: Public Spaces Old Market Square, Nottingham © Anna Rose / Space Syntax Ltd.Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 17. Space Syntax Research: Public Spaces Old Market Square, Nottingham © Anna Rose / Space Syntax Ltd.Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 18. Space Syntax Research: Museums Spatial configuration and movement flows at Tate Britain SOCIAL BEHAVIOURS © Bill Hillier / Space Syntax Ltd.Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 19. Space Syntax Research: Libraries Movement flows in the British Library ReadersMovement flows on Upper Ground Floor – Data collection by UCL MSc AAS students in 2009 and 2010 Non-ReadersArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 20. Space Syntax Research: Workplace Environments Movement flows in offices: result of configuration and attractor placement SOCIAL BEHAVIOURS © Kerstin SailerArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 21. From Spatial to Transpatial Solidarities: from Virtual to Real Communities SOCIAL BEHAVIOURSArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 22. Spatial and Transpatial Solidarities Concept of spatiality and transpatial solidarity as two distinct ways of creating relationships between individuals: “In their elementary forms, in effect, buildings (…) can define a relation to others by conceptual analogy, rather than spatial relation. The inhabitant of a house in a village, say, is related to his neighbours spatially, in that he occupies a location in relation to them, but also he relates to them conceptually, in that his interior system of spatialised categories is similar or different from those of his neighbours. He relates, it might be said, transpatially as well as spatially.” (Hillier and Hanson 1984: 18ff) Key features of spatial and transpatial ordering of categories: • Affinity between individuals spatially as well as transpatially driven • Societies may use one way of ordering more than another • Ordering of space not of equal conspicuousness to every cultureArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 23. Spatial and Transpatial Solidarities SOCIAL SOLIDARITIES FORM Mechanic Organic Integration through similarity Interdependence through differentiation Homogeneity Heterogeneity ORGANISATIONAL Long models, i.e. strongly programmed Short models, i.e. weakly programmed OPERATIONS Hierarchies Network Structure Vertical communication Lateral communication Transpatial Spatial SPATIAL Segregated and sparse space Integrated and dense space IMPLICATIONS Interior relations, ‘inside’ Exterior relations, ‘outside’ Well defined categorical differences Weakly defined categorical differences between spaces between spaces High levels of control of events and Low levels of control of events and encounter encounter Sources: Durkheim 1893, Burns and Stalker 1961, Hillier and Hanson 1984, Hillier and Penn 1991; summarised in Sailer 2010Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 24. Spatial and Transpatial Solidarities Spatial Solidarities Transpatial Solidarities WHERE WE ARE WHO WE ARE Location, Neighbourhoods, Proximity, Gender, Age, Profession, Affiliations, Physical Closeness Memberships, Interests The Guildhall, City of LondonArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 25. Interplay between Spatial & Transpatial – Example 1 Organisational Cultures in the British Museum High levels of local integration yet global segregation → distinct org. cultures, segregated spaces allow transpatial identities to flourishArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 26. Interplay between Spatial & Transpatial – Example 2 Lack of local identities in a Media Company “Brands need to own their space and feel separate to other brands. If you walk around the office you would never know where you are unless you already know people. This doesnt enable people to make new friends or contacts.” High levels of global integration and uniform workstation layout → lack of identities, disregard of transpatial solidaritiesArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 27. Interplay between Spatial & Transpatial – Example 3 Time-space routines and social cohesion in Research Institute High levels of global integration → emergence of social cohesion and contacts fostered in transpatially organised clustersArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 28. Spatial and Transpatial Solidarities Two mechanisms for bonding and social relationships between people: 1. Sharing same local world and coming together in physical space (spatial solidarity); 2. Shared interests or goals, which may overcome / transverse boundaries of physical space (transpatial solidarity); TRANS- SPATIAL SPATIAL Example: The Guild Virtual Community Real CommunityArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 29. Impact of Technologies – Physical and Virtual SpacesArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 30. Impact of Technologies Emergence of ‘Online Communities’ Source: http://xkcd.com/802/Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 31. Impact of Technologies – Networked Individualism Networked Individualism (Rainie and Wellman 2012): People function as connected individuals; partial membership in multiple networks instead of permanent membership in settled groups; Made possible by: • Social Network Revolution: opportunities to reach beyond tightly knit groups • Internet Revolution: communication and information-gathering power • Mobile Revolution: accessibility, anywhere and anytime CURRENT / FUTURE SOCIETY: PAST SOCIETY: networked individualism fixed groups KINSHIP WORK CHURCH Village / Town Various spatial scalesArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 32. Impact of Technologies: Physical and Digital Space How do people find information? Example: Rosetta Stone at British Museum OPTION 1: Travel to London, visit British Museum (physical space) OPTION 2: Go to website of the British Museum (digital space)Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 33. Impact of Technologies: Physical and Digital Space Finding information on Rosetta Stone at British Museum: Option 1 (physical space) Structured search: looking at map or asking information desk (2-3 steps) Exploratory: finding interesting / relevant exhibits on your own (2-10 steps, possibly more)Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 34. Impact of Technologies: Physical and Digital Space Finding information on Rosetta Stone at British Museum: Option 2 (digital space) Structured search: typing name of exhibit into search box (2 steps) [Exploratory: clicking through the online collections (3-10 steps, possibly more)]Architectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 35. Impact of Technologies: Physical and Digital Space Finding information on Rosetta Stone at British Museum → different spatial experiences in physical & digital space, but also different social realities PHYSICAL SPACE DIGITAL SPACEArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 36. Impact of Technologies: Physical and Digital Space What is the difference between physical space and digital space in enabling the get together of people and allowing communities to flourish? PHYSICAL SPACE DIGITAL SPACE Complex spatial configuration Simple or no spatial configuration at all Deep or shallow Shallow / flat Relative position or location matters Access matters Distribution of users through spatial Distribution of users through access / configuration / attractors self-selection process Unplanned encounter Structured encounter Co-presence Lone activityArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 37. Conclusions Physical space in buildings and cities structures co-presence and interaction patterns of people; Co-presence of people in space gives rise to ‘virtual community’: raw material of society, awareness and psychological dimension; Communities emerge from the combination of spatial and transpatial worlds; Technologies change the way in which people interact, yet physical space remains an important dimension; Digital space allows online communities to flourish → distinctly different from affordances of physical space and implications for social relationships; Similarly to Space Syntax which offers a language for discursive and structured analysis of physical space, an approach to systematically investigate the structure and affordances of digital spaces is neededArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012
  • 38. Thank you! Email: k.sailer@ucl.ac.uk Twitter: @kerstinsailer Dr Kerstin Sailer Lecturer in Complex Buildings Bartlett School of Graduate Studies University College London 14 Upper Woburn Place London WC1H 0NNArchitectural Space as a Network Dr Kerstin Sailer, December 2012 United Kingdom