“In terms of weight and size, batteries have become one of the limiting factors in the development of electronic devices.”“The problem with...lithium batteries is that none of the existing electrode materials alone can deliver all the required performance characteristics including high capacity, higher operating voltage, and long cycle life. Consequently, the other way is to optimize available electrode materials by designing new composite structures on the Nano scale.”
Paper battery The Future of Batteries
Sri Savitribai Phule Polytechnic
Electronics & Telecommunications
An Overview of the battery technology that
powers our mobile society.
• Electrochemical reaction - a chemical
reaction between elements which creates
• Oxidation occurs on the metals
(“electrodes”), which creates the electrons.
• Electrons are transferred down the pile via
the saltwater paper (the “electrolyte”).
• A charge is introduced at one pole, which
builds as it moves down the pile.
Lithium (Ion) Battery Development
• In the 1970’s, Lithium metal was
used but its instability rendered it
unsafe and impractical.
• Lithium-cobalt oxide and graphite
are now used as the lithium-Ionmoving electrodes.
• The Lithium-Ion battery has a
slightly lower energy density than
Lithium metal, but is much safer.
Introduced by Sony in 1991.
Recharge-ability & the “memory effect”
• Recharge-ability: basically, when the direction
of electron discharge (negative to positive) is
reversed, restoring power.
• The Memory Effect: (generally) When a
battery is repeatedly recharged before it has
discharged more than half of its power, it will
“forget” its original power capacity.
• Cadmium crystals are the culprit! (NiCd)
Advantages of Using Li-Ion Batteries
• POWER – High energy density means greater
power in a smaller package.
– 160% greater than NiMH
– 220% greater than NiCd
• HIGHER VOLTAGE – a strong current allows it
to power complex mechanical devices.
• LONG SHELF-LIFE – only 5% discharge loss per
– 10% for NiMH, 20% for NiCd
Disadvantages of Li-Ion
• EXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd.
• DELICATE -- battery temp must be
monitored from within (which raises the
price), and sealed particularly well.
• REGULATIONS -- when shipping Li-Ion
batteries in bulk (which also raises the
– Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous
Environmental Impact of Li-Ion Batteries
• Rechargeable batteries
are often recyclable.
• Oxidized Lithium is nontoxic, and can be
extracted from the
and used as feedstock
for new Li-Ion batteries.
Micro-Generated Energy Storage
• Li-Ion batteries recharge quickly and hold
their charge longer, which provides
flexibility to the micro-generator.
particularly helpful for wind and solar
• Lightness, and power per volume allow
for storage and design flexibility.
• The attempt to manufacture and control
objects at the atomic and molecular level
(i.e. 100 nanometers or smaller).
• 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter (10-9)
• 1 nanometer : 1 meter :: 1 marble : Earth
• 1 sheet of paper = 100,000 nanometers
A Conventional Battery takes up a
huge amount of space and contributes
to a large part of the device's weight.
Paper Battery is flexible and ultra
thin energy storage device. It acts as
both high-energy battery and supercapacitor. This combination allows the
battery to provide both long term,
steady power production of energy.
It can be folded, cut or otherwise
shaped for different applications with
out loss of efficiency. Cutting one in
half, halves its energy production.
Paper Batteries will replace
the conventional batteries
and Li-ion batteries
Anatomy of paper battery is based on
the use of Carbon Nano-tubes tiny
cylinders to collect electric charge.
Paper as a medium is the welldesigned structure of millions of
interconnected fibers in it. These
fibers can hold on carbon nano tubes
Cellulose paper + Nano Technology = Paper Battery
Formed by combining carbon nano-tubes with a
conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper.
Nano-tubes acts as electrodes, allowing the
storage devices to conduct electricity.
Paper battery integrates all of the battery
components in a single structure, makes it
more energy efficient.
Carbon Nano-tubes exhibit extra-ordinary
strength and unique electrical properties.
Conventional Battery Vs Paper Battery
Conventional Battery produce electrons through a
chemical reaction between electrolyte and metal
Chemical reaction in Paper Battery is between electrolyte and
Electrons must flow from negative to positive terminal for the
The Paper electrode stores charge while
recharging in 10 seconds because ions flow
through the thin electrode quickly
Materials & Description
This energy storage device is
based on two basic, inexpensive
materials: carbon nanotubes and
cellulose. Also an ionic liquid
provides the third component:
electrolyte. Engineered together,
they form Nano composite paper.
It is as thin and flexible as a piece
of paper—it can be twisted,
folded, rolled and cut to fit any
space without losing any of its
energy. The paper battery can
also be stacked to boost the total
WHAT IS A CARBON NANOTUBE?
• A carbon nanotube is a tube-shaped material, made
of carbon, having a diameter measuring on the
• A nanometer is one billionth of the meter or about
one ten-thousandth the thickness of the human hair.
• The graphite layer appears somewhat like a rolled-up
chicken wire with a continuous unbroken hexagonal
mesh and carbon molecules at the apexes of the
• Carbon Nanotubes have many structures, differing in
length, thickness, and in the type of helicity and
number of layers.
• Although they are formed from essentially the same
graphite sheet, their electrical characteristics differ
depending on these variations, acting either as metals
or as semiconductors.
• As a group, Carbon Nanotubes typically have diameters
ranging from <1 nm up to 50 nm. Their lengths are typically
several microns, but recent advancements have made the
nanotubes much longer, and measured in centimeters.
. They are among the stiffest and strongest fibers known,
and have remarkable electronic properties and many other
Carbon Nanotubes can be categorized by their structures:
What are the Properties of a Carbon Nanotube?
• The intrinsic mechanical and transport properties of Carbon
Nanotubes make them the ultimate carbon fibers.
• The following tables compare these properties to other
engineering materials. Mechanical properties of engineering
1.3 to 2
10 to 60
1.7 to 2
0.2 to 0.6
1.7 to 5
2 to 2.2
0.4 to 0.96
2.2 to 3.3
0.27 to 0.6
3.6 to 4.1
• Transport properties of conductive materials are:
106 to 107
2 to 8.5
8 to 105
6.5 to 14
• Overall, Carbon Nanotubes show a unique combination of
stiffness, strength, and tenacity compared to other fiber materials
which usually lack one or more of these properties.
• Thermal and electrical conductivity are also very high, and
comparable to other conductive materials.
1. It can be Rolled, twisted, folded or
cut into numerous shapes
2. No loss of integrity/efficiency
3. Light weight
4. Bio-degradable and Non-toxic
5. It can be a Super Capacitor
Flat discharge curve - Paper
batteries disposable thin
battery's cells feature a straight
and stable discharge curve until
complete depletion of their
capacity, enabling steady
performance of powered
products over time.
High safety features - Paper batteries
disposable thin battery's cells contain no
caustic chemicals, and cannot overheat,
explode, or cause burns or electrical shock.
They are non-toxic and non-flammable and
can therefore be freely shipped, stored,
and disposed of after use.
Fully integratable – Paper batteries
disposable thin battery's cells can be
printed directly into or onto the endproduct for seamless integration. Part of
the cells may even have dual functions to
serve the purpose of the end-product.
As alternate to conventional batteries in gadgets
Powered smart cards RF id tags
E-cards, E-greetings and Talking posters
Pacemakers in the heart (uses blood as electrolyte)
Paper Battery in the field of Cosmetics
The Active Cosmetic Patch made from
paper battery effectively improves the
delivery of cosmetic active
reducing the appearance of wrinkles
and other age signs.
• Mode of Action
The micro-current drives actives from
the active electrode into the stratum
corneum (the outermost layer of the
In doing so, it drives the active
ingredients to the specific treatment
Post 20 Min.
Paper Battery in the field of Pharmaceuticals
• Iontophoresis process is
done using a Paper
• The Paper battery uses
electrical energy to
enhance the delivery of
drugs through biological
membranes such as the
skin or the nail.
Carbon nano-tubes are very expensive.
Batteries with large enough power are unlikely to
be cost effective.
For a commercial viabilities, these batteries have
to be scaled up to sheets of newspaper size.
Replacing the old batteries results wastage of old
Generation of e-waste.
is the best way
re-cycle the energy
The life of battery is an important parameter
which decides the area of application of
These paper batteries can further reduce the
weight of the electronic gadgets.
The future may allow simply painting the
nano-tube ink and active materials onto
surfaces such as walls.
High storage of energy leads to decrease
charging time. Thus energy can be saved
is the best way
re-cycle the energy
This energy storage device is cost-effective
because the device can be able to be used
in the smallest and most diversely designed
electronics. Such as cell phones, mp3
players and medical equipment.
The researchers say that it can also be used
in automobiles and aircraft. But it has a
poor processibility, being that it is
particularly insoluble of infusible. Lastly,
the use of ionic liquid makes the device
environmentally friendly; a major concern
Books Used & Read……….
Physics Textbook G-scheme (Electrical Group)
Chemistry Textbooks G-scheme (Electrical Group)
All about “Carbon & Compound Structures”