PAPER BATTERY & PRINCIPLE
CONSTRUCTION & WORKING OF PAPER
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
A Battery convert chemical energy into the electrical
A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and
production device formed by combining carbon
nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based
The nano materials are a one-dimensional structure with
very small diameters..
A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and
super capacitor. This combination allows the battery to
provide both long-term, steady power production and
bursts of energy.
It is non toxic, environment friendly and is everything that
a conventional battery is not.
Can be folded, cut or
otherwise shaped for
without any loss of
Cutting one in half ,
halves its energy
Can be stacked in
multiples of power
2.5 volts of electricity
from a sample the
size of a postage
HISTORY OF PAPER BATTERY
In August 2007, a research team at RENSSELEAR
POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE led by Drs. Robert
Linhardt, John H.Broadbent, Omkaram Nalamasu
with a joint appointment in Material science and
engineering developed the Paper Battery, also known as
Nano Composite Paper.
In December 2009 Yi Cui and his team at STANFORD
UNIVERSITY successfully made an actual prototype that
gave a terminal voltage of 1.5V
The battery produces electricity in the same way as the
conventional lithium-ion batteries, but all the
components have been incorporated into a
lightweight, flexible sheet of paper.
The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an
infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes.
The electrolyte and the ions that carry the charge can be
varied depending the use of the battery.
The Nanotubes, which colour the paper black, act as
electrodes and allow the storage devices to conduct
The device functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a
super-capacitor, which stores charge like a battery but
has no liquid electrolyte.
The paper battery provides a long, steady power output
as against a conventional battery burst of high energy.
The ionic liquid electrolyte that is soaked into the paper
is a liquid salt and contains no water, so it won’t freeze
Research is going on around the world to replace this
ionic electrolyte with body fluids, blood, sweat etc.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs; also known
as buckytubes) are allotropes of
carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
They exhibit extraordinary strength and
unique electrical properties, and are
efficient thermal conductors.
Nanotubes are members of
the fullerene structural family, the
diameter of a nanotube is on the order of
a few nanometers
Because of the symmetry and unique
electronic structure of graphene, the
structure of a nanotube strongly affects
its electrical properties. For a given (n,m)
nanotube, if n = m, the nanotube is
metallic; if n − m is a multiple of 3, then
the nanotube is semiconducting with a
very small band gap, otherwise the
nanotube is a moderate semiconductor
PRODUCTION OF CARBON NANOTUBE
o While a number of production method of carbon
o .Three main method of producing carbon nanotube
o Chemical vapor deposition
o Arc discharge
o Laser ablation
CONSTRUCTION OF PAPER
CNT thin films were coated onto stainless steel (SS)
substrates with a solution based process.
The concentration of CNT is 1.7 mg/mL.
A dried film with a thickness of 2 micrometer was formed
after drying the CNT ink on the SS substrate at 80 °C for
5 min.This film is then peeled off from substrate.
These films act as electrodes of paper battery.
one film is pasted to electrolyte LTO (Li4Ti5O12) and
the other film is pasted to electrolyte LCO (LiCoO2).
Paper is sandwiched between two electrolytes LTO and
LCO with PVDF(poly vinylidene fluoride) .
WORKING OF PAPER BATTERY
1.Batteries produce electrons through a chemical reaction between
electrolyte and metal in the traditional battery.
2. Chemical reaction in the paper battery is between electrolyte and carbon
3. Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and flow along a
connected wire to the positive terminal
4. Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive terminal for the
chemical reaction to continue.
Light, rugged, flexible, can be rolled, crunched, cut,
made into any shape.
The nano composite paper is compatible with a number
of electrolyte, like blood, urine, sweat etc.
If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, that's 500
times the voltage. If we rip the paper in half we cut
power by 50%. So we can control the power and voltage
Non toxic and hence ca be used to power pacemakers
and RF tags.
It is very useful where burst of energy is required for
operation like mostly electric vehicles.
The electrolyte contains no water, thus there’s nothing in
the batteries to freeze or evaporate, potentially allowing
operation in extreme temperatures.
The organic radical materials inside the battery are in an
"electrolyte-permeated gel state,“ which helps ions make
a smooth move, allowing the batteries to charge at
(It could charge 10-20 times faster than conventional Li-
Presently, the devices are only a few inches across and
they have to be scaled up to sheets of newspaper size to
make it commercially viable.
Carbon nanotubes are expensive
Researches in nanotechnology to mass produce
nanotubes is promising.
Should not be inhaled,as they can damage lungs
Pace makers (uses blood as electrolyte)
Used as alternate to conventional batteries in gadgets.
Devices in space shuttles
Powered smart cards RF id tags, smart clothes.
Disposable medical devices - Single-use delivery and
diagnostic devices could have Power Paper incorporated
into their construction to allow for sensors and smart
Paper battery is set in iontophoresis patch. It helps to
deliver functional drugs, local anesthesia, antichloristic,
anodyne, etc into skin.
In iontophoresis patch for whitening and wrinkles
Paper battery could one day power motor vehicles and
aircrafts and replace the conventional fuel based engines
with electric motors.
The range of possible applications for paper batteries
derives from their important advantages as compared to
conventional battery technologies.
They can be made in virtually any shape and size to meet
the requirements of each application.
The batteries are rechargeable, and have reduced cost
and weight which in itself may give birth to new
Paper battery could solve all the problems associated
with electrical energy storage.
However the reality is still very far away, though the
researches are promising.
Paper battery could one day power
motor vehicles and aircrafts
It replace the conventional fuel based
engines with electric motors.