08 cognition & language


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08 cognition & language

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGY9TH EDITIONBy Robert FeldmanPowerpoint slides by Kimberly Foreman
  3. 3. MODULE 23: Thinking andReasoning What is thinking? What processes underlie reasoning anddecision making?
  4. 4. MODULE 23: Thinking andReasoning Cognitive Psychology› Branch of psychology that focuses on thestudy of higher mental processes, includingthinking, language, memory, problemsolving, knowing, reasoning, judging, anddecision making
  5. 5. MODULE 23: Thinking andReasoning Thinking› Manipulation of mental representations ofinformation
  6. 6. Mental Images: Examining theMind’s Eye Representations inthe mind of an objector event› Not just visualrepresentations butevery modality
  7. 7. Concepts: Categorizing theWorld Concepts› Categorizations ofobjects, events, orpeople that sharecommon properties Prototypes Highlyrepresentativeexamples of aconcept Example: Vehicle
  8. 8. Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Syllogistic Reasoning: The Formal Rules ofLogic› Kind of formal reasoning in which a persondraws a conclusion from a set of assumptions› Example Premise 1: All professors are mortal. Premise 2: Professor Rivera is a professor. Conclusion: Therefore, Dr. Rivera is mortal.
  9. 9. Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Algorithm› Rule that, if applied appropriately,guarantees a solution to a problem a² + b² = c²
  10. 10. Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Heuristic› Cognitive shortcut that may lead to asolution Representativeness heuristic Rule one applies when he judges people by thedegree to which they represent a certain categoryor group of people Availability heuristic Judging the probability of an event on the basis ofhow easily the event can be recalled from memory
  11. 11. Computers and Problem Solving:Searching for ArtificialIntelligence Field that examines how to usetechnology to imitate the outcome ofhuman thinking, problem-solving, andcreative activities
  12. 12. MODULE 24: Problem Solving How do people approach and solveproblems? What are the major obstacles to problemsolving? What is creativity?
  13. 13. Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Well-defined Problem› Both the nature of the problem itself and theinformation needed to solve it are availableand clear Ill-defined Problem› Not only the specific nature of the problem isunclear, but the information required to solvethe problem is less obvious
  14. 14. Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Kinds of Problems› Arrangementproblems› Problems of inducingstructure› Transformationproblems
  15. 15. Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Representing andOrganizing theProblem› Depends on the way aproblem is phrased, orframed
  16. 16. Production: GeneratingSolutions Means-end Analysis› Involves repeated tests for differencesbetween the desired outcome and whatcurrently exists› Most frequently applied heuristic in problemsolving
  17. 17. Production: GeneratingSolutions Forming Subgoals: Dividing Problems intoTheir Parts Insight: Sudden Awareness› Wolfgang Köhler
  18. 18. Judgment: Evaluating theSolutions Impediments to Solutions: Why Is ProblemSolving Such a Problem?› Functional Fixedness Tendency to think of an object only in terms ofits typical use› Mental Set Tendency for old patterns of problem solvingto persist
  19. 19. Judgment: Evaluating theSolutions Impediments to Solutions: Why Is ProblemSolving Such a Problem?› Inaccurate evaluation of solutions Confirmation bias Problem solvers favor initial hypotheses and ignorecontradictory information that supports alternativehypotheses or solutions
  20. 20. Creativity and Problem Solving Creativity› Ability to generate original ideas or solveproblems in novel ways Divergent thinking Ability to generate unusual, yet appropriate,responses to problems or questions Convergent thinking Produces responses that are based primarily onknowledge and logic
  21. 21. MODULE 25: Language How do people use language? How does language develop?
  22. 22. MODULE 25: Language Communication of information throughsymbols arranged according tosystematic rules
  23. 23. Grammar: Language’sLanguage Grammar› System of rules that determines how ourthoughts can be expressed Phonology Smallest basic units of speech Phonemes Syntax Rules that indicate how words and phrases can becombined to form sentences Semantics Meanings of words and sentences
  24. 24. Language Development:Developing a Way with Words Babbling› Speechlike but meaningless sounds Production of Language› Telegraphic speech› Overgeneralization
  25. 25. Language Development:Developing a Way with Words Approaches› Learning theory approach› Nativist approach Universal grammar Language-acquisition device Neural system in the human brain› Interactionist approach Genetically determined predispositions andenvironmental circumstances that help teachlanguage
  26. 26. The Influence of Language onThinking: Do Eskimos Have MoreWords for Snow than Texans Do? Linguistic-relativity hypothesis› Notion that language shapes and, in fact,may determine the way people in a specificculture perceive and understand the world
  27. 27. Do Animals Use Language? Chimpanzees and sign language› Critics contend that language such animalsuse lacks grammar and complex and novelconstructions of human language
  28. 28. Teaching with LinguisticVariety: Bilingual Education Bilingual Education Immersion Programs› Students are immediately plunged intoforeign language instruction in all subjects Alternation Model