Mental Images: Examining theMind’s Eye Representations inthe mind of an objector event› Not just visualrepresentations butevery modality
Concepts: Categorizing theWorld Concepts› Categorizations ofobjects, events, orpeople that sharecommon properties Prototypes Highlyrepresentativeexamples of aconcept Example: Vehicle
Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Syllogistic Reasoning: The Formal Rules ofLogic› Kind of formal reasoning in which a persondraws a conclusion from a set of assumptions› Example Premise 1: All professors are mortal. Premise 2: Professor Rivera is a professor. Conclusion: Therefore, Dr. Rivera is mortal.
Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Algorithm› Rule that, if applied appropriately,guarantees a solution to a problem a² + b² = c²
Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Heuristic› Cognitive shortcut that may lead to asolution Representativeness heuristic Rule one applies when he judges people by thedegree to which they represent a certain categoryor group of people Availability heuristic Judging the probability of an event on the basis ofhow easily the event can be recalled from memory
Computers and Problem Solving:Searching for ArtificialIntelligence Field that examines how to usetechnology to imitate the outcome ofhuman thinking, problem-solving, andcreative activities
MODULE 24: Problem Solving How do people approach and solveproblems? What are the major obstacles to problemsolving? What is creativity?
Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Well-defined Problem› Both the nature of the problem itself and theinformation needed to solve it are availableand clear Ill-defined Problem› Not only the specific nature of the problem isunclear, but the information required to solvethe problem is less obvious
Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Kinds of Problems› Arrangementproblems› Problems of inducingstructure› Transformationproblems
Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Representing andOrganizing theProblem› Depends on the way aproblem is phrased, orframed
Production: GeneratingSolutions Means-end Analysis› Involves repeated tests for differencesbetween the desired outcome and whatcurrently exists› Most frequently applied heuristic in problemsolving
Judgment: Evaluating theSolutions Impediments to Solutions: Why Is ProblemSolving Such a Problem?› Functional Fixedness Tendency to think of an object only in terms ofits typical use› Mental Set Tendency for old patterns of problem solvingto persist
Judgment: Evaluating theSolutions Impediments to Solutions: Why Is ProblemSolving Such a Problem?› Inaccurate evaluation of solutions Confirmation bias Problem solvers favor initial hypotheses and ignorecontradictory information that supports alternativehypotheses or solutions
Creativity and Problem Solving Creativity› Ability to generate original ideas or solveproblems in novel ways Divergent thinking Ability to generate unusual, yet appropriate,responses to problems or questions Convergent thinking Produces responses that are based primarily onknowledge and logic
MODULE 25: Language How do people use language? How does language develop?
MODULE 25: Language Communication of information throughsymbols arranged according tosystematic rules
Grammar: Language’sLanguage Grammar› System of rules that determines how ourthoughts can be expressed Phonology Smallest basic units of speech Phonemes Syntax Rules that indicate how words and phrases can becombined to form sentences Semantics Meanings of words and sentences
Language Development:Developing a Way with Words Babbling› Speechlike but meaningless sounds Production of Language› Telegraphic speech› Overgeneralization
Language Development:Developing a Way with Words Approaches› Learning theory approach› Nativist approach Universal grammar Language-acquisition device Neural system in the human brain› Interactionist approach Genetically determined predispositions andenvironmental circumstances that help teachlanguage
The Influence of Language onThinking: Do Eskimos Have MoreWords for Snow than Texans Do? Linguistic-relativity hypothesis› Notion that language shapes and, in fact,may determine the way people in a specificculture perceive and understand the world
Do Animals Use Language? Chimpanzees and sign language› Critics contend that language such animalsuse lacks grammar and complex and novelconstructions of human language
Teaching with LinguisticVariety: Bilingual Education Bilingual Education Immersion Programs› Students are immediately plunged intoforeign language instruction in all subjects Alternation Model