Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGY9TH EDITIONBy Robert FeldmanPowerpoint slides by Kimberly Foreman
 CHAPTER EIGHT:COGNITION AND LANGUAGE
MODULE 23: Thinking andReasoning What is thinking? What processes underlie reasoning anddecision making?
MODULE 23: Thinking andReasoning Cognitive Psychology› Branch of psychology that focuses on thestudy of higher mental pro...
MODULE 23: Thinking andReasoning Thinking› Manipulation of mental representations ofinformation
Mental Images: Examining theMind’s Eye Representations inthe mind of an objector event› Not just visualrepresentations bu...
Concepts: Categorizing theWorld Concepts› Categorizations ofobjects, events, orpeople that sharecommon properties Protot...
Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Syllogistic Reasoning: The Formal Rules ofLogic› Kind of formal reasoning in which a person...
Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Algorithm› Rule that, if applied appropriately,guarantees a solution to a problem a² + b² ...
Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Heuristic› Cognitive shortcut that may lead to asolution Representativeness heuristic Rul...
Computers and Problem Solving:Searching for ArtificialIntelligence Field that examines how to usetechnology to imitate th...
MODULE 24: Problem Solving How do people approach and solveproblems? What are the major obstacles to problemsolving? Wh...
Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Well-defined Problem› Both the nature of the problem itself and theinfo...
Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Kinds of Problems› Arrangementproblems› Problems of inducingstructure› ...
Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Representing andOrganizing theProblem› Depends on the way aproblem is p...
Production: GeneratingSolutions Means-end Analysis› Involves repeated tests for differencesbetween the desired outcome an...
Production: GeneratingSolutions Forming Subgoals: Dividing Problems intoTheir Parts Insight: Sudden Awareness› Wolfgang ...
Judgment: Evaluating theSolutions Impediments to Solutions: Why Is ProblemSolving Such a Problem?› Functional Fixedness ...
Judgment: Evaluating theSolutions Impediments to Solutions: Why Is ProblemSolving Such a Problem?› Inaccurate evaluation ...
Creativity and Problem Solving Creativity› Ability to generate original ideas or solveproblems in novel ways Divergent t...
MODULE 25: Language How do people use language? How does language develop?
MODULE 25: Language Communication of information throughsymbols arranged according tosystematic rules
Grammar: Language’sLanguage Grammar› System of rules that determines how ourthoughts can be expressed Phonology Smalles...
Language Development:Developing a Way with Words Babbling› Speechlike but meaningless sounds Production of Language› Tel...
Language Development:Developing a Way with Words Approaches› Learning theory approach› Nativist approach Universal gramm...
The Influence of Language onThinking: Do Eskimos Have MoreWords for Snow than Texans Do? Linguistic-relativity hypothesis...
Do Animals Use Language? Chimpanzees and sign language› Critics contend that language such animalsuse lacks grammar and c...
Teaching with LinguisticVariety: Bilingual Education Bilingual Education Immersion Programs› Students are immediately pl...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

08 cognition & language

498 views

Published on

Midterm (1st sem)

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

08 cognition & language

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING PSYCHOLOGY9TH EDITIONBy Robert FeldmanPowerpoint slides by Kimberly Foreman
  2. 2.  CHAPTER EIGHT:COGNITION AND LANGUAGE
  3. 3. MODULE 23: Thinking andReasoning What is thinking? What processes underlie reasoning anddecision making?
  4. 4. MODULE 23: Thinking andReasoning Cognitive Psychology› Branch of psychology that focuses on thestudy of higher mental processes, includingthinking, language, memory, problemsolving, knowing, reasoning, judging, anddecision making
  5. 5. MODULE 23: Thinking andReasoning Thinking› Manipulation of mental representations ofinformation
  6. 6. Mental Images: Examining theMind’s Eye Representations inthe mind of an objector event› Not just visualrepresentations butevery modality
  7. 7. Concepts: Categorizing theWorld Concepts› Categorizations ofobjects, events, orpeople that sharecommon properties Prototypes Highlyrepresentativeexamples of aconcept Example: Vehicle
  8. 8. Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Syllogistic Reasoning: The Formal Rules ofLogic› Kind of formal reasoning in which a persondraws a conclusion from a set of assumptions› Example Premise 1: All professors are mortal. Premise 2: Professor Rivera is a professor. Conclusion: Therefore, Dr. Rivera is mortal.
  9. 9. Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Algorithm› Rule that, if applied appropriately,guarantees a solution to a problem a² + b² = c²
  10. 10. Reasoning: Making Up YourMind Heuristic› Cognitive shortcut that may lead to asolution Representativeness heuristic Rule one applies when he judges people by thedegree to which they represent a certain categoryor group of people Availability heuristic Judging the probability of an event on the basis ofhow easily the event can be recalled from memory
  11. 11. Computers and Problem Solving:Searching for ArtificialIntelligence Field that examines how to usetechnology to imitate the outcome ofhuman thinking, problem-solving, andcreative activities
  12. 12. MODULE 24: Problem Solving How do people approach and solveproblems? What are the major obstacles to problemsolving? What is creativity?
  13. 13. Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Well-defined Problem› Both the nature of the problem itself and theinformation needed to solve it are availableand clear Ill-defined Problem› Not only the specific nature of the problem isunclear, but the information required to solvethe problem is less obvious
  14. 14. Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Kinds of Problems› Arrangementproblems› Problems of inducingstructure› Transformationproblems
  15. 15. Preparation: Understandingand Diagnosing Problems Representing andOrganizing theProblem› Depends on the way aproblem is phrased, orframed
  16. 16. Production: GeneratingSolutions Means-end Analysis› Involves repeated tests for differencesbetween the desired outcome and whatcurrently exists› Most frequently applied heuristic in problemsolving
  17. 17. Production: GeneratingSolutions Forming Subgoals: Dividing Problems intoTheir Parts Insight: Sudden Awareness› Wolfgang Köhler
  18. 18. Judgment: Evaluating theSolutions Impediments to Solutions: Why Is ProblemSolving Such a Problem?› Functional Fixedness Tendency to think of an object only in terms ofits typical use› Mental Set Tendency for old patterns of problem solvingto persist
  19. 19. Judgment: Evaluating theSolutions Impediments to Solutions: Why Is ProblemSolving Such a Problem?› Inaccurate evaluation of solutions Confirmation bias Problem solvers favor initial hypotheses and ignorecontradictory information that supports alternativehypotheses or solutions
  20. 20. Creativity and Problem Solving Creativity› Ability to generate original ideas or solveproblems in novel ways Divergent thinking Ability to generate unusual, yet appropriate,responses to problems or questions Convergent thinking Produces responses that are based primarily onknowledge and logic
  21. 21. MODULE 25: Language How do people use language? How does language develop?
  22. 22. MODULE 25: Language Communication of information throughsymbols arranged according tosystematic rules
  23. 23. Grammar: Language’sLanguage Grammar› System of rules that determines how ourthoughts can be expressed Phonology Smallest basic units of speech Phonemes Syntax Rules that indicate how words and phrases can becombined to form sentences Semantics Meanings of words and sentences
  24. 24. Language Development:Developing a Way with Words Babbling› Speechlike but meaningless sounds Production of Language› Telegraphic speech› Overgeneralization
  25. 25. Language Development:Developing a Way with Words Approaches› Learning theory approach› Nativist approach Universal grammar Language-acquisition device Neural system in the human brain› Interactionist approach Genetically determined predispositions andenvironmental circumstances that help teachlanguage
  26. 26. The Influence of Language onThinking: Do Eskimos Have MoreWords for Snow than Texans Do? Linguistic-relativity hypothesis› Notion that language shapes and, in fact,may determine the way people in a specificculture perceive and understand the world
  27. 27. Do Animals Use Language? Chimpanzees and sign language› Critics contend that language such animalsuse lacks grammar and complex and novelconstructions of human language
  28. 28. Teaching with LinguisticVariety: Bilingual Education Bilingual Education Immersion Programs› Students are immediately plunged intoforeign language instruction in all subjects Alternation Model

×