7.1 mid term review lecture slides student notes


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  • Open area - area known to you and another Blind area - information about you that others, but not you, are aware of Hidden - your hidden self. Known to you but not shared with others Self-disclosure happens when you move something from the hidden area into the open area Unknown - Neither you nor others are aware of it
  • Example of the triangle of meaning: The matter evokes the writer's thought. The writer refers the matter to the symbol. The symbol evokes the reader's thought. The reader refers the symbol back to the matter.
  • 7.1 mid term review lecture slides student notes

    1. 1. Mid-term ReviewLecture 7.1University of AlbertaALES 204Nancy Bray 1
    2. 2. HousekeepingCentre for Writers 2
    3. 3. Lecture Outline Module 1 - What is communication? Module 2 - Essentials of communication, part 1 Module 3 - Essentials of communication, part 2 Module 4 - Essentials of communication, part 3 Module 5 - Informative communication Module 6 - Visual communication 3
    4. 4. Module 1:What is communication? 4
    5. 5. What is communication? 5
    6. 6. Definition of communication“Deliberate or accidental transfer of meaning” -- Gamble & Gamble, p. 4 6
    7. 7. 7 essentials of communication1. People2. Message3. Channels4. Noise5. Context6. Feedback7. Effect 7
    8. 8. Gamble & Gamble model 8
    9. 9. 5 myths of communication1. Everyone is an expert2. Communication will solve every problem3. Communication can break down4. Communication is inherently good5. More communication is better 9
    10. 10. Résumés 10
    11. 11. 5 common mistakes in résumés1. All about job seeker and not employer2. Responsibilities vs accomplishments3. Not specific, no specific examples4. Too much info5. Poor design 11
    12. 12. Steps to a good résumé1. Research the employer2. Research yourself accomplishments what+how+results1. Build a master résumé2. Choose type of résumé3. Tailor the résumé for each employer4. Proofread! 12
    13. 13. Alternatives to traditional résumé Video, slidecast LinkedIn Job portfolio (web or paper) Professional bios 13
    14. 14. Module 2:Essentials of communication, part 1 14
    15. 15. Intercultural communication 15
    16. 16. What isculture? a system of knowledge, beliefs, values, customs, behaviours, and artifacts that are acquired, shared, and used by members during daily living 16
    17. 17. What is co-culture? groups of persons who differ in some ethnic or sociological way from the parent culture 17
    18. 18. What strategies do co-culturesuse to interact with dominantculture? Assimilation Accommodation Separation 18
    19. 19. 5 dimensions of culture1. Individualism vs collectivism2. High-context vs low-context3. High power distance vs low power distance4. Monochromic vs polychromic5. Masculine vs feminine culture 19
    20. 20. Hierarchies 20
    21. 21. What is a hierarchy?Relationship structurePyramidEveryone is subordinate, except leader 21
    22. 22. Why hierarchies?Communication flowCoordinationResponsibility/authority 22
    23. 23. DisadvantagesCommunication difficultiesSilosCan’t change quickly enoughCan be opaque in low power distance culture 23
    24. 24. Upwardcommunication Boss BossWhat subordinates are doingUnsolved problemsSuggestions for improvementHow subordinates feel abouteach other and their jobs You You 24
    25. 25. Lateral communication Co-worker 1 Co-worker 1 You You Co-worker 2 Co-worker 2Task coordinationProblem solvingSharing informationConflict resolution 25
    26. 26. Downward communication You You Subordinate 1 Subordinate 1 Subordinate 2 Subordinate 2Job instructionsJob rationaleFeedback 26Corporate culture
    27. 27. Professional e-mail 27
    28. 28. Parts of an e-mail1. Professional e-mail address2. Bcc or Cc3. Subject line4. Attachment name5. Greeting6. Opening sentence7. Body8. Closing sentence9. Closing10.Signed Name11.Signature Block 28
    29. 29. Module 3:Essentials of communication, part 2 29
    30. 30. Cover letters 30
    31. 31. A good cover letter can Make a good first impression Target the employer’s needs Showcase your personality Close gaps in your work record Highlight skills and accomplishments Demonstrate your writing skills 31
    32. 32. 8 steps to a good cover letter 1. Research the employer 2. If e-mail: create a good subject line 3. Start with a greeting 4. The lead line 5. The sales pitch 6. The closer 7. Closing line 8. Proofread carefullySource: http://susanireland.com/letter/how-to/ 32
    33. 33. Audience 33
    34. 34. How to research1. Find existing research2. Talk to your audience Interviews Surveys Focus groups = group interview of 10-12 people1. Build (a) profile(s) and create a (many) personas. 34
    35. 35. AudienceProfilesA written summary of everything that you have discovered aboutyour audience 35
    36. 36. Audience PersonasAn imagined, stereotypical character which you create to help bettercommunicate 36
    37. 37. What you want to know: Demographics Psychographic Relationship to you Age Values and attitudes What do you share? Gender Media consumption What is different Socioeconomic Activities (pastimes) between you?category What is in it for your Culture audience? Geographic location Profession 37
    38. 38. Perception 38
    39. 39. What is perception?process by which we make sense out of experience 39
    40. 40. Stages of perception 40
    41. 41. Things that affect perception Figure-ground principle Perceptual schema like stereotypes Closure 41
    42. 42. Selective perception selective perception = means of interpreting experience in a way that conforms to one’s beliefs, expectations, and convictions selective exposure = tendency to expose oneself to information that reaffirms existing attitudes, beliefs, and values selective attention = tendency to focus on certain cues and ignore others selective retention = tendency to remember those things that reinforce one’s way of thinking and forget those that oppose one’s way of thinking
    43. 43. Self-conceptSelf-concept = self-image + self-esteemSelf-image = mental image of yourselfSelf-esteem = evaluation of yourselfIs partly subjectiveIs multifaceted 43
    44. 44. Johari window
    45. 45. Ways that we perceive othersFirst impressionsStereotypes and prejudiceSelf-serving biasesAllnessFacts and inferenceEmpathy 45
    46. 46. Module 3:Essentials of communication, part 3 46
    47. 47. Language 47
    48. 48. What is language?a unified system of symbols that permits the sharing of meaningsymbol = that which represents something else 48
    49. 49. Triangle of meaning Thought Word Thing 49
    50. 50. Bypassingmiscommunication that occurs when individuals think theyunderstand each other but actually miss each other’s meaning 50
    51. 51. Types of meaningdenotative meaning = dictionary meaning; objective or descriptivemeaning of a wordconnotative meaning = subjective meaning; one’s personal meaningfor a word 51
    52. 52. Influences on meaningTimePlaceExperience (think of jargon) 52
    53. 53. Sapir-Whorf hypothesisbelief that labels we use help shape our thinking, our worldview,and our behaviour 53
    54. 54. Non-verbal behaviour 54
    55. 55. Non-verbal communicationHuman messages and responses not expressed in wordsSometimes we are unaware of actionsSometimes we use non-verbal communication purposefullyMixed message: message that occurs when words and actionscontradict each otherAwareness of non-verbal communication will help us be bettercommunicators 55
    56. 56. Nine channels of non-verbalcommunication a. Kinesics (body) b. Voice (paralanguage) c. Proxemics (space and distance) d. Appearance e. Colours f. Clothing and artifacts g. Time h. Touch i. Smell 56
    57. 57. Module 5:Informative communication 57
    58. 58. The writing process 58
    59. 59. Why is writing hard? Speaking is natural and low-stakes Writing is unnatural = mediating with technology Writing is high-stakes. We can’t take it back 59
    60. 60. Beaufort model ofwriting expertise Writing Subject process matter knowledge knowledge Discourse community knowledge Rhetorical Genre knowledge knowledge 60
    61. 61. How do expert writers write? 61
    62. 62. What is rhetoric? How to use language effectively to communicate a message Has a bad rap = often linked to deceiving speech 62
    63. 63. Readability and plain language 63
    64. 64. Readability How easily a text is understood 64
    65. 65. Readability statistics Average American and British adult reads at the Grade 9 (Age 13) level Most popular novels at Grade 7 level Most newspapers at the Grade 11 level 65
    66. 66. Readability measuresFlesch-Kincaid Grade Level formulaFlesch Reading Ease Score 66
    67. 67. How to increase readability Reduce sentence length Avoid 3-syllable and more words Choose words with Anglo-Saxon roots over their Latin-root equivalents, i.e., ‘dog’ over ‘canine’. Use plain English principles 67
    68. 68. Plain language“The writing and setting out of essential information in a way thatgives a cooperative, motivated person a good chance ofunderstanding it at first reading, and in the same sense that the writermeant it to be understood.” -- Oxford Guide to Plain LanguageAlso called plain English 68
    69. 69. Four main features of plain language1. Common, everyday words2. Refer to the reader as ‘you’, the writer as ‘we’3. The use of the active voice4. Short sentences 69
    70. 70. Informative communication 70
    71. 71. What is informative communication? Effort to deepen understanding and to increase awareness 71
    72. 72. Audience and goal Representation of real world Expert Lay Audience 72
    73. 73. Types of informative communication Informatory = effort to increase awareness Explanatory = effort to deepen understanding 73
    74. 74. Four components of effectiveinstructions (informatory)1. Desired state = the goal that the user must accomplish2. Prerequisite state = what the user must know/have before beginning3. Interim state = steps that the user must take to get to final goal4. Unwanted states = states to avoid Based on Farkas (1999) 74
    75. 75. Steps for an effective explanation1. Define concepts by their essential, not associated, meaning2. When presenting a confusing concept, give an array of varied examples3. Offer “non-examples”, i.e., closely related, but distinct concepts4. Encourage learners to practice 75
    76. 76. Learning a new genre1. What is the purpose?2. Who is the audience?3. What are the expectations of the genre? a. Language b. Design4. What is the process? 76
    77. 77. Module 6:Visual Communication 77
    78. 78. Information OverloadYour message is competing with millions of other messages 78
    79. 79. Improving your visual design: Gives your message a better chance of being seen Gives your message a better chance of being understood 79
    80. 80. CRAP Principles of Design1. Contrast2. Repetition3. Alignment4. Proximity 80
    81. 81. Typography and ColourTypeface (font) must match contentColour must suit content 81
    82. 82. How to make things stick1. Simple2. Unexpected3. Credible4. Concrete5. Emotion6. Stories 82
    83. 83. Gestalt theory Whole is greater than sum of its parts Closure Figure Ground Continuation Proximity Similarity 83