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  1. 1. Powerpoint Templates
  2. 3. <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Manipulation of words & images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies how the mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Organizes perceptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Processes information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Interprets experience </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment / Evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imagination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 8. <ul><li>Associative Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- includes indirected and uncontrolled thinking such as occur in reveries and dreams. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autistic thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( also called daydreaming ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Nightdreaming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( due to unconscious impulses ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C. Imagination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(process of creating objects or events) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. Eidetic imagery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( Photographic Minds ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 9. <ul><li>Directed Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- thinking oriented towards a goal – as in reasoning about a problem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(crucial judgment or evaluation of something ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Creative Thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> ( involves the ability to produce new forms in art ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Preparation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Incubation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Illumination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Verification </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 10. <ul><li>Directed Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Brainstorming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( technique which involves grouping people ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( process of logical thinking ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e. Problem Solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( process used in discovering the correct sequence of alternatives leading to a goal ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 11. <ul><li>Algorithms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- fixed set of rules that, if followed correctly, will eventually lead to a solution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heuristics </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- the rules of thumb, or clever and creative mental shortcuts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Changing One’s Mental Set </li></ul><ul><li>Using Analogies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- strategy for finding a similarity between the new situation and an old </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Forming Subgoals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- a strategy that involves breaking down the overall problem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 12. > Think Accurately: Separate Facts From Mere Information > Separate Facts Into Two Classes: The Important And The Unimportant, Or, The Relevant And The Irrelevant Accurate Thinking Involves Two Fundamental:
  9. 13. Once a problem is represented (whether its through words, static images, or mental models), we try out possible solutions and test to see if they work. If the problem is solved, life goes on. If not, we return to the proverbial drawing board to come up with new ideas.
  10. 14. Strategies: - Trial & error Identify problem Gather information Try a solution Evaluate results
  11. 15. Strategies: - Trial & error - Algorithm A systematic, step-by-step problem-solving strategy, guaranteed to provide a solution - Heuristic A rule of thumb that allows one to make judgments that are quick but often in error L K C C O - Insight
  12. 16. Problems with Problem Solving <ul><li>Mental set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency to use a strategy that has worked in the past </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Fixedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tendency to think of objects only in terms of their usual functions, a limitation that disrupts problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Problems with Problem Solving <ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The inclination to search only for evidence that will verify one’s beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Belief Perseverance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency to cling to beliefs even after they have been discredited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Anderson (1980) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Try to make best choice </li></ul><ul><li>from alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility: value of given outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability: likelihood you’ll achieve it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representativeness Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event in terms of how typical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(how similar to the prototype) it seems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Availability Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tendency to estimate the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>likelihood of an event in terms of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how easily instances of it can be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recalled </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- a form of communication consisting of a system of sounds, words, meanings, and rules for their combination. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>> Formal system of communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Spoken,written, and/or gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>> Between 5,000 and 6,000 languages, worldwide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Most languages also have many dialects </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>-- Semantic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are separate units in a language and these units have meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoneme : basic building block of spoken language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morpheme : smallest unit that carries meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-- Generative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combing language in novel ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-- Displacement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The property of language that accounts for the capacity to communicate about matters that are not in the here-and-now </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- The rules of a language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Syntax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>> Specifies how words can be arranged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>> Specifies how meaning is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>understood & communicated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformational grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Any one thought can be expressedin different ways </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>No one disputes the stages of language development </li></ul><ul><li>But there are two main questions in terms of what it all means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Is language acquisition a product of nature or nurture? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Which comes first – language or thought? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. <ul><li>Is it nature or nurture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skinner vs. Chomsky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skinner: Children learn language the way animals learn mazes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chomsky: The brain is hard-wired for learning lang. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the first few years of life, we are most receptive to language learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What comes first – thought or language? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both: sometimes children use words to communicate what they already know </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and sometimes they form concepts to fit the words they hear </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Thank you for Listening !