MODULE 26: What isIntelligence? What are the different definitions andconceptions of intelligence? What are the major approaches tomeasuring intelligence, and what dointelligence tests measure?
Theories of Intelligence: Are ThereDifferent Kinds of Intelligence? G-factor› General factor for mental ability› Was thought to underlie performance inevery aspect of intelligence› Recent theories view intelligence as amultidimensional concept
Theories of Intelligence: Are ThereDifferent Kinds of Intelligence? Fluid Intelligence› Reflects information-processing capabilities,reasoning, and memory Crystallized Intelligence› Accumulation of information, skills, andstrategies that people learn throughexperience
Theories of Intelligence: Are ThereDifferent Kinds of Intelligence? Gardner’s MultipleIntelligences: TheMany Ways ofShowing Intelligence› Eight different forms ofintelligence
Theories of Intelligence: Are ThereDifferent Kinds of Intelligence? Is Information Processing Intelligence?› Information-processing approach Way people store material in memory and usethat material to solve intellectual tasks Speed of processing
The Biological Basis ofIntelligence Lateral PrefrontalCortex Higher intelligence isrelated to thethickness of thecerebral cortex
Practical Intelligence andEmotional Intelligence Practical Intelligence› Related to overall success in living Emotional Intelligence› Set of skills that underlie the accurateassessment, evaluation, expression, andregulation of emotions
Assessing Intelligence Intelligence Tests› Quantify and measure intelligence in anobjective manner
Assessing Intelligence Binet and The Development of IQ tests› Mental age (MA)› Chronological age (CA)› Intelligence quotient (IQ)› Deviation IQ scores› Bell-shaped distribution› IQ score = MA x 100CA
Assessing Intelligence Contemporary IQ Tests: GaugingIntelligence› Achievement test Designed to determine a person’s level ofknowledge in a specific subject area› Aptitude test Designed to predict a person’s ability in aparticular area or line of work
Assessing Intelligence Reliability and Validity: Taking theMeasure of Tests› Reliability Tests measure consistently what they are tryingto measure› Validity Tests actually measure what they aresupposed to measure› Norms Standards of test performance that permit thecomparison of one person’s score on a test toscores of others
Assessing Intelligence Adaptive Testing: Using Computers toAssess Performance› Adaptive in the sense that the computerindividualizes the test to the test-taker
Scoring Better on StandardizedTests Learn as much as you can about the testbefore you take it Practice If the test is administered on a computer,take practice tests on a computer Time yourself carefully Be aware of the scoring policy If it is a paper-and-pencil test, completeanswer sheets accurately
MODULE 27: Variations inIntellectual Ability How can the extremes of intelligence becharacterized? How can we help people reach their fullpotential?
Mental Retardation Disability characterized by significantlimitations both in intellectual functioningand in conceptual, social, and practicaladaptive skills› Mild with an IQ of 55 to 69› Moderate with an IQ of 40 to 54› Severe with an IQ of 25 to 39› Profound with an IQ below 25
Mental Retardation Identifying the Roots of MentalRetardation› Fetal alcohol syndrome Caused by a mother’s use of alcohol whilepregnant› Familial retardation No apparent biological defect exists but thereis a history of retardation in the family
Mental Retardation Integrating Individuals with MentalRetardation› Education for All Handicapped Children Actof 1975 (Public Law 94-142) Least restrictive environment Mainstreaming Full inclusion
The Intellectually Gifted Have IQ scores greater than 130 Programs for the gifted are designed toprovide enrichment that allowsparticipants’ talents to flourish
MODULE 28: Group Differences inIntelligence: Genetic andEnvironmental Determinants Are traditional IQ tests culturally biased? Are there racial differences inintelligence? To what degree is intelligence influencedby the environment, and to what degreeby heredity?
MODULE 28: Group Differences inIntelligence: Genetic andEnvironmental Determinants Background and experiences of test-takers have the potential to affect results Some standardized IQ tests containelements that discriminate againstminority-group members whoseexperiences differ from those of the whitemajority
The Relative Influence of Geneticsand Environment: Nature,Nurture, and IQ Culture-fair IQ Test› One that does not discriminate against themembers of any minority group Heritability› Measure of the degree to which acharacteristic can be attributed to genetic,inherited factors